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, PL, polysaccharide lyase) and family number according to the carbohydrate-active enzyme database 16 . Right side: known substrate of CAZy families (most common forms in brackets): BPG

, BEPS, bacterial exopolysaccharides; CW, cell wall; ESR, energy storage and recovery

, FCW, fungal cell wall; PCW, plant cell wall; PG

, U, undetermined; a-gluc, a-glucans (including starch/ glycogen)

, b-glycans; b-1,3-gluc, b-1,3-glucan; cell, cellulose; chit, chitin/ chitosan; dext, dextran; hemi, hemicelluloses

N. and N. ,

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A. Contributions, B. H. , M. L. , F. P. , P. Bonfante et al., contributed equally to this work as second authors. F.M. initiated the project and coordinated the genome annotation, data analysis and manuscript preparation; P.W. coordinated the sequencing and automated annotation at Genoscope. F.M. and S.O. wrote the manuscript with input from P

, The complete expression dataset is available as series (accession number GSE17529) at the Gene Expression Omnibus at NCBI. Reprints and permissions information is available at www.nature.com/reprints. This paper is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike licence, and is freely available to all readers at www.nature.com/nature. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Correspondence and requests for materials