P. Almeida and B. Kogut, Localization of Knowledge and the Mobility of Engineers in Regional Networks, Management Science, vol.45, issue.7, pp.905-918, 1999.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.45.7.905

P. Almeida, J. Song, and R. Grant, Are Firms Superior to Alliances and Markets? An Empirical Test of Cross-Border Knowledge Building, Organization Science, vol.13, issue.2, pp.147-161, 2002.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.

D. Audretsch and P. Stephan, Knowledge spillovers in Biotechnology : Sources and Incentives, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, pp.95-107, 1999.

C. Autant-bernard, N. Massard, and V. Mangematin, Creation and Growth of high tech SMEs: The role of Local environment Clusters in high-technology.: Montreal, UQAM Autio E. 1995. Four types of innovators : a conceptual and empirical study of new, technologybased compagnies as innovators, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, vol.7, pp.233-248, 2002.

J. Baum, T. Calabrese, and B. Silverman, Don't go it alone: alliance network composition and startups' performance in Canadian biotechnology, Strategic Management Journal, vol.36, issue.3, pp.263-294, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(200003)21:3<267::AID-SMJ89>3.0.CO;2-8

B. Bozeman, J. Dietz, and M. Gaughan, Scientific and technical human capital: an alternative model for research evaluation, International Journal of Technology Management, vol.22, issue.7/8, 2001.
DOI : 10.1504/IJTM.2001.002988

C. Campbell, A Decision Theory Model for Entrepreneurial Acts, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol.17, issue.1, pp.21-28, 1992.

W. Cohen, R. Nelson, and J. Walsh, Links and Impacts: The Influence of Public Research on Industrial R&D, Management Science, vol.48, issue.1, pp.1-23, 2002.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.

J. Colyvas, M. Crow, A. Gelijns, R. Mazzoleni, R. Nelson et al., How Do University Inventions Get Into Practice?, Management Science, vol.48, issue.1, pp.61-72, 2002.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.

D. Deeds and C. Hill, An examination of opportunistic action within research alliances, Journal of Business Venturing, vol.14, issue.2, pp.141-163, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00069-4

J. Dietz, I. Chompalov, B. Bozeman, O. Neil-lane, E. Park et al., Using the curriculum vita to study the career paths of scientists and engineers : an exploratory assessment, Scientometrics, vol.49, issue.3, pp.419-442, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1010537606969

E. Douglas and D. Shepherd, Self-employment as a career choice: Attitudes, entrepreneurial intentions, and utility maximization, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol.26, issue.3, pp.81-91, 2002.

. Ernst&young, Life Sciences in France -2001-Where creativity meets business. Ernst Young International The dynamics of Samsung's technological Learning in Semiconductors, California Management Review, vol.39, pp.86-100, 1997.

S. Lemarie, M. Delooze, and V. Mangematin, The Development of Biotech SMEs : The role of size, technology and market in France, Germany and United Kingdom, Scientometrics, vol.47, issue.3, pp.541-560, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1005624017982

J. Liebeskind, A. Oliver, L. Zucker, and M. Brewer, Social networks, Learning, and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms, Organization Science, vol.7, issue.4, pp.428-442, 1996.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.7.4.428

V. Mangematin and N. L. , What kind of knowledge can a firm absorb?, International Journal of Technology Management, vol.18, issue.3/4, pp.3-4, 1999.
DOI : 10.1504/IJTM.1999.002771

I. Maurer, Development Processes of Firms' Social Capital: The Cases of two Biotechnology Start-ups, EGOS 17th annual conference, 2001.

P. Mcnamara, Établir un management crédible dans les entreprises high tech déficitaire: le rôle des alliances, Des mondes de confiance. CNRS: Paris Meidinger C, Robin S, Ruffieux B. 1999. Confiance, réciprocité et " Cheap talk, pp.5-44, 2003.

D. Mowery, R. Nelson, B. Sampat, and A. Ziedonis, The growth of patenting and licensing by U.S. universities: an assessment of the effects of the Bayh???Dole act of 1980, Research Policy, vol.30, issue.1, pp.99-119, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0048-7333(99)00100-6

S. Shane and T. Stuart, Organizational Endowments and the Performance of University Start-ups, Management Science, vol.48, issue.1, pp.154-170, 2002.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.

P. Stephan, Human Capital and IPO Value of Biotechnology Firms Working paper Stephan P, Everahrt S. 1998. The changing rewards to science: The case of biotechnology, Small Business Economics, vol.10, issue.2, pp.141-151, 1999.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1007929424290

P. Swann, M. Prevezer, D. Stout, G. Szulanski, and R. Jensen, The Dynamics of Industrial Clustering : International Companies in Computing and Biotechnology Facilitating knowle dge transfer: an empirical investigation of the role of the template. Wharton school: Reginald H Jones working papers Winter S. 1987. Knowledge and Competence as Strategic Assets The Competitive Challenge: 159-184, American Economic Review, vol.88, issue.1, pp.290-306, 1998.

L. Zucker and M. Darby, Star-scientist linkages to firms in APEC and European countries: indicators of regional institutional differences affecting competitive advantage, International Journal of Biotechnology, vol.1, issue.1, pp.119-131, 1999.
DOI : 10.1504/IJBT.1999.004479

L. Zucker, M. Darby, and J. Armstrong, Commercializing Knowledge: University Science, Knowledge Capture, and Firm Performance in Biotechnology, Management Science, vol.48, issue.1, p.138, 2002.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.