G. Airinei, C. Gaudichon, C. Bos, C. Bon, N. Kapel et al., Raynaud in patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, Clin Nutr, vol.30, pp.831-837, 2011.

S. Amarri, M. Harding, W. A. Coward, T. J. Evans, and L. T. Weaver, 13Carbon mixed triglyceride breath test and pancreatic enzyme supplementation in cystic fibrosis, Arch Dis Child, vol.76, pp.349-351, 1997.

. Anonymous, Removal of blood from laboratory mammals and birds. First report of the BVA/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement, Lab Anim, vol.27, pp.1-22, 1993.

A. Badaloo, M. Boyne, M. Reid, C. Persaud, T. Forrester et al., Dietary protein, growth and urea kinetics in severely malnourished children and during recovery, J Nutr, vol.129, pp.969-979, 1999.

L. L. Baggio and D. J. Drucker, Biology of incretins: GLP-1 and GIP. Gastroenterology, vol.132, pp.2131-2157, 2007.

D. Borowitz, M. W. Konstan, A. O'rourke, M. Cohen, L. Hendeles et al., Coefficients of fat and nitrogen absorption in healthy subjects and individuals with cystic fibrosis, J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther, vol.12, pp.47-52, 2007.

C. Bos, G. Airinei, F. Mariotti, R. Benamouzig, S. Bérot et al., The poor digestibility of rapeseed protein is balanced by its very high metabolic utilization in humans, J Nutr, vol.137, pp.594-600, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01173370

T. Corring and D. Bourdon, Exclusion of pancreatic exocrine secretion from intestine in the pig: existence of a digestive compensation, J Nutr, vol.107, pp.1216-1221, 1977.

J. E. Domínguez-muñoz, Chronic pancreatitis and persistent steatorrhea: what is the correct dose of enzymes?, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol.9, pp.541-546, 2011.

R. Ebert and W. Creutzfeldt, Reversal of impaired GIP and insulin secretion in patients with pancreatogenic steatorrhea following enzyme substitution, Diabetologia, vol.19, pp.198-204, 1980.

M. P. Engelen, G. Com, P. J. Anderson, and N. E. Deutz, New stable isotope method to measure protein digestibility and response to pancreatic enzyme intake in cystic fibrosis, Clin Nutr, vol.33, pp.1024-1032, 2014.

P. Evenepoel, M. Hiele, B. Geypens, K. P. Geboes, P. Rutgeerts et al., 13C-egg white breath test: a non-invasive test of pancreatic trypsin activity in the small intestine, Gut, vol.46, pp.52-57, 2000.

J. L. Fridge, C. Conrad, L. Gerson, R. O. Castillo, and K. Cox, Risk factors for small bowel bacterial overgrowth in cystic fibrosis, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, vol.44, pp.212-218, 2007.

P. C. Gregory, K. Hoffmann, J. Kamphues, and A. Möeler, The pancreatic duct ligated (mini)pig as a model for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in man, Pancreas, vol.45, pp.1213-1226, 2016.

R. Harris, A. P. Norman, and W. W. Payne, The effect of pancreatin therapy on fat absorption and nitrogen retention in children with fibrocystic disease of the pancreas, Arch Dis Child, vol.30, pp.424-427, 1955.

E. Kammlott, J. Karthoff, K. Stemme, P. Gregory, and J. Kamphues, Experiments to optimize enzyme substitution therapy in pancreatic duct-ligated pigs, J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), vol.89, pp.105-108, 2005.

F. K. Knop, T. Vilsbøll, S. Larsen, P. V. Højberg, A. Vølund et al., Increased postprandial responses of GLP-1 and GIP in patients with chronic pancreatitis and steatorrhea following pancreatic enzyme substitution, Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, vol.292, pp.324-330, 2007.

S. D. Ladas, K. Giorgiotis, and S. A. Raptis, Complex carbohydrate malabsorption in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, Gut, vol.34, pp.984-987, 1993.

W. Miner-williams, A. Deglaire, R. Benamouzig, M. F. Fuller, D. Tomé et al., Endogenous proteins in terminal ileal digesta of adult subjects fed a casein-based diet, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.96, pp.508-515, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00924763

C. Morens, C. Bos, M. E. Pueyo, R. Benamouzig, N. Gausserès et al., Increasing habitual protein intake accentuates differences in postprandial dietary nitrogen utilization between protein sources in humans, J Nutr, vol.133, pp.2733-2740, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00416302

A. Mößeler, P. C. Gregory, H. Loock, M. Beyerbach, and J. Kamphues, Endogenous praecaecal and total tract losses of nitrogen in pancreatic duct-ligated minipigs, Arch Anim Nutr, vol.69, pp.98-112, 2015.

A. Mößeler and J. Kamphues, Black-box gastrointestinal tract-needs and prospects of gaining insights of fate of fat, protein, and starch in case of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency by using fistulated pigs, Nutrients, vol.9, p.150, 2017.

A. Mößeler, R. Tabeling, P. C. Gregory, and J. Kamphues, Compensatory digestion of fat, protein and starch (rates and amounts) in the large intestine of minipigs in case of reduced precaecal digestion due to pancreatic duct ligation -a short review, Livest Sci, vol.109, pp.50-52, 2007.

K. Naumann and R. Bassler, Methodenbuch Band III: Die Chemische Untersuchung von Futtermitteln, 2004.

M. Oberli, A. Marsset-baglieri, G. Airinei, V. Santé-lhoutellier, N. Khodorova et al., High true ileal digestibility but not postprandial utilization of nitrogen from bovine meat protein in humans is moderately decreased by high-temperature, long-duration cooking, J Nutr, vol.145, pp.2221-2228, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01455216

H. Petry and W. Rapp, On the problem of chromium oxide determination in digestion studies

, Z Tierphysiol Tierernahr Futtermittelkd, vol.27, pp.181-189, 1971.

M. Stepien, C. Gaudichon, D. Azzout-marniche, G. Fromentin, D. Tomé et al., Postprandial nutrient partitioning but not energy expenditure is modified in growing rats during adaptation to a high-protein diet, J Nutr, vol.140, pp.939-945, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01611426

G. S. Stewart and C. P. Smith, Urea nitrogen salvage mechanisms and their relevance to ruminants, non-ruminants and man, Nutr Res Rev, vol.18, pp.49-62, 2005.

N. E. Sunny, S. L. Owens, R. L. Baldwin, S. W. El-kadi, R. A. Kohn et al., Salvage of blood urea nitrogen in sheep is highly dependent on plasma urea concentration and the efficiency of capture within the digestive tract, J Anim Sci, vol.85, pp.1006-1013, 2007.

R. Tabeling, P. Gregory, and J. Kamphues, Studies on nutrient digestibilities (pre-caecal and total) in pancreatic duct-ligated pigs and the effects of enzyme substitution, J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), vol.82, pp.251-263, 1999.

P. P. Toskes, A. Secci, R. Thieroff-ekerdt, and . Group, Efficacy of a novel pancreatic enzyme product, EUR-1008 (Zenpep), in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis, Pancreas, vol.40, pp.376-382, 2011.

T. Trang, J. Chan, and D. Y. Graham, Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in the 21(st) century, World J Gastroenterol, vol.20, pp.11467-11485, 2014.

P. A. Trolli, D. L. Conwell, and G. Zuccaro, Pancreatic enzyme therapy and nutritional status of outpatients with chronic pancreatitis, Gastroenterol Nurs, vol.24, pp.84-87, 2001.

Y. Twersky and S. Bank, Nutritional deficiencies in chronic pancreatitis, Gastroenterol Clin North Am, vol.18, pp.543-565, 1989.

C. M. Van-hoozen, P. G. Peeke, M. Taubeneck, C. F. Frey, and C. H. Halsted, Efficacy of enzyme supplementation after surgery for chronic pancreatitis, Pancreas, vol.14, pp.174-180, 1997.

D. C. Whitcomb, G. A. Lehman, G. Vasileva, E. Malecka-panas, N. Gubergrits et al., Pancrelipase delayedrelease capsules (CREON) for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery: A double-blind randomized trial, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.105, pp.2276-2286, 2010.

J. L. Wooldridge, J. E. Heubi, R. Amaro-galvez, S. R. Boas, K. V. Blake et al., EUR-1008 pancreatic enzyme replacement is safe and effective in patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency, J Cyst Fibros, vol.8, pp.405-417, 2009.