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Amino acid efficiencies of utilization vary by different mechanisms in response to energy and protein supplies in dairy cows

Abstract : Variations of mammary gland (MG) metabolism were studied in dairy cows in response to diets containing 2 levels of net energy of lactation [NEL; 25.0 and 32.5 Mcal/d for low (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively], combined with 2 levels of metabolizable protein [MP, 1,266 and 2,254 g/d of protein digestible in the intestine for low (LP) and high protein (HP), respectively] in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four cows received 4 diets (LELP, HELP, LEHP, and HEHP) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Milk production and feed intake were measured on the last 5 d of each period, whereas MG net uptake of AA was determined on d 13. Efficiencies were estimated as the sum of measured milk true protein yield (MPY) and of estimations of metabolic fecal and scurf proteins multiplied by their respective AA profile and divided by the estimated AA supply minus the AA endogenous urinary loss. The increased MPY in the HE compared with the LE diets (higher by 123 g/d) was accompanied by increased mammary plasma flow and MG uptake of the nonessential AA (NEAA) and the essential AA (EAA), except for branched-chain AA. In contrast, the increase in MPY (higher by 104 g/d) observed in the HP compared with the LP diets was linked to increased MG uptake of EAA without a change in mammary plasma flow and a decreased NEAA uptake. Because MG uptake of total AA-N was almost equal to cows' milk output on a nitrogen basis, these different mechanisms involve a large MG flexibility, with variable synthesis of NEAA. In addition, MP efficiency did not increase only through increased MPY in the HE compared with the LE diets but also through metabolic fecal protein, estimated to increase (by 65 g/d) with dry matter intake. The MPY increased in the HP compared with the LP diets, but the increase was smaller than the calculated increase (greater by 993 g/d) in MP supply. The highest MG clearance rates of individual EAA could suggest that Met, His, and Lys were limiting in LP, and Met was the most limiting AA in HP. Interestingly, a similar hypothesis could be stated by analyzing estimated AA efficiencies. The highest efficiencies among EAA, observed for His in HELP and for Met with the other diets, could indicate that they were the most limiting AA in these respective diets, whereas other EAA (including Lys) efficiencies varied with MP efficiency. The MG metabolic flexibility with regard to individual AA utilization partially contributes to the anabolic fate of AA through MPY; however, other export proteins also contribute to variations in MP and AA efficiencies.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02282330
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Submitted on : Monday, September 9, 2019 - 8:17:56 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 6, 2022 - 4:08:16 PM

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Cléo Omphalius, Hélène Lapierre, Jocelyne Guinard-Flament, Philippe Lamberton, Lahlou Bahloul, et al.. Amino acid efficiencies of utilization vary by different mechanisms in response to energy and protein supplies in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, American Dairy Science Association, 2019, 102 (11), pp.9883-9901. ⟨10.3168/jds.2019-16433⟩. ⟨hal-02282330⟩

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