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Postruminal infusions of amino acids or glucose affect metabolisms of splanchnic, mammary, and other peripheral tissues and drive amino acid use in dairy cows

Abstract : Effects of AA and glucose infusions on efficiency of use of essential AA (EAA) were studied according to a 2 × 2 factorial using 5 multicatheterized cows in a 4 × 4 Latin square plus one cow, with 2-wk periods. The diet provided 87% of energy and 70% of metabolizable protein requirements, and the 4 treatments were abomasal infusions of (1) water, (2) an AA mixture with a casein profile (695 g/d), (3) glucose (1,454 g/d), or (4) a combination of AA and glucose infusions. Milk samples were collected on the last 6 milkings. On d 14, 6 blood samples were collected from arterial, and portal, hepatic, and mammary venous vessels. Splanchnic plasma flow was calculated by dilution of p-aminohippurate and mammary flow by the Fick principle using Phe + Tyr. The net flux of AA across tissues [splanchnic, i.e., portal-drained viscera (PDV) + liver, and mammary gland] was calculated as the efflux minus the influx across that tissue. The efficiency of EAA was calculated as the sum of exported true proteins [milk protein yield (MPY), scurf, and metabolic fecal protein] multiplied by their respective AA profile and divided by the predicted AA supply minus AA endogenous urinary loss. In addition, catabolism was estimated for each tissue: AA supply − (portal net flux + metabolic fecal protein) for the PDV; −hepatic net flux for the liver; splanchnic net flux − (−mammary net flux + scurf) for the other peripheral tissues; and −mammary net flux − milk for the mammary gland. The MIXED procedure (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used with cow as a random effect. No AA × glucose interaction existed for most of the measured parameters. With infusions of AA and glucose, MPY increased by 17 and 14%, respectively. The decreased efficiency of EAA-N with AA infusion resulted from increased EAA-N in MPY smaller than the increased EAA-N supply and was accompanied by increased liver catabolism of His + Met + Phe (representing group 1 AA) and increased mammary and PDV catabolisms of group 2 AA-N (Ile, Leu, Lys, and Val). In contrast, the increased efficiency of EAA-N with glucose infusion, resulting from increased EAA-N in MPY with no change in EAA-N supply, was accompanied by decreased mammary catabolism of group 2 AA-N and hepatic catabolism of His + Met + Phe. No mammary catabolism of His, Met, and Phe existed in all treatments, as indicated by the mammary uptake to milk output ratio close to one for these EAA. Therefore, the mammary gland contributes significantly to variations of efficiency of group 2 AA-N through variations of AA catabolism, in response to both AA and glucose supplies, whereas additional PDV catabolism was observed with increased AA supply. Partition of AA use between tissues allows to delineate their anabolic or catabolic fate across tissues and better understand changes of efficiency of EAA in response to protein and energy supplies.
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Cléo Omphalius, Sophie Lemosquet, Daniel R. Ouellet, Lahlou Bahloul, Hélène Lapierre. Postruminal infusions of amino acids or glucose affect metabolisms of splanchnic, mammary, and other peripheral tissues and drive amino acid use in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, American Dairy Science Association, 2020, 103 (3), pp.2233-2254. ⟨10.3168/jds.2019-17249⟩. ⟨hal-02496278⟩

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