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Comparaison théorique de dispositifs d'ANC : les filières par "cultures fixées sur supports fins" autorisées au 1er novembre 2013

Abstract : The order liying down the technical requirements relating to the onsite treatment system receiving a daily organic load lower or equal to 1,2 kg of DBO5 lead to the development of new technical devices. This report is designed to summarize the regulation elements available on interdepartmental website about on site treatment. This report deals only with one type of devices: the attached growth system on fine media. In addition to devices using ground or sand, this synthesis report includes 44 technical approvals and their related available user manuals; it concerns 11 manufacturers. All the systems have a preliminary treatment constituted by a septic tank except for the “treatment garden” which has a first floor made of vertical red bed filter. For all the approved systems, the septic tank and the filter are totally inseparable except for the plant named: "EPURFLO mini CP ". The septic tanks are in a variety of forms: rectangular, cylindrical, ovoide, and made of several chosen constituent materials: PEHD, PE, resin of polyester and fiberglass, concrete. Their sizes vary from 0,60 in 0,75m3 / PE to 1m3 / PE for those preceding a zeolite filter. The sludge productions are referred by manufacturers with such different units that comparisons are really complex. The intervals of emptying operation given by manufacturers, depend on the occupation rate and seem to be based on only theoretical calculations: they extended over periods between 2 years and 3-4 years. Different lining materials are used such as soil, sand or gravel, zeolite, shavings of coconut or rock wool cubes. The variation range of effective surface areas is important: between 5m2 / PE and 0,26 m2 / PE respectively for the vertical sand filter and one of the rock wool cubes filter. The horizontal sand filter (the only treatment plant in anoxic conditions) has a higher effective surface area, close to 9 m2 / PE. The hold on the ground for a land treatment is estimated at 12 m2 / PE in case of an average permeability of 50 mm / h. For less permeability capacity, the hold on the ground is bigger. The need for compactness leads to an intensive use of the filter which is characterized by the daily applied surface organic load. Some rock wool receive a daily applied surface load of 160g DBO5/m2. This value is 20 times superior to the surface load related to the vertical sand filter used in on site treatment and is 12 times superior to the surface load related to underground filters used in collective sanitation. In such conditions, the intensity of biological development may probably lead to a renewal of the material to avoid its clogging. Among the 26 analyzed systems, only 7 plants work at load rates lower than the known applied loads rates in collective sanitation. This theoretical analysis will be completed by in situ measurements which should emphasize the relevance of the constructive elements of the new devices.
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  • IRSTEA : PUB00044835

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Catherine Boutin, Vivien Dubois, C. Lassablière. Comparaison théorique de dispositifs d'ANC : les filières par "cultures fixées sur supports fins" autorisées au 1er novembre 2013. [Rapport de recherche] irstea. 2013, pp.104. ⟨hal-02601648⟩

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