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A high space-time resolution dataset linking meteorological forcing and hydro-sedimentary response in a mesoscale Mediterranean catchment (Auzon) of the Ardèche region, France

Abstract : A comprehensive hydrometeorological dataset is presented spanning the period 1 January 2011-31 December 2014 to improve the understanding of the hydrological processes leading to flash floods and the relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport in a mesoscale catchment (Auzon, 116 km²) of the Mediterranean region. Badlands are present in the Auzon catchment and well connected to high gradient channels of bedrock rivers which promotes the transfer of suspended solids downstream. The specificity of the dataset is its high space -time resolution, especially concerning rainfall and the hydrological response which is particularly adapted to the highly spatially variable rainfall events that may occur in this region. This type of dataset is rare in scientific literature because of the quantity and type of sensors for 30 meteorology and surface hydrology. Rainfall data include continuous precipitation measured by rain gauges (5 min time step for the research network of 21 rain gauges and 5min or 1h time step for the operational network of 10 rain gauges), S-band Doppler dual-polarization radars (1 km², 5 min resolution), disdrometers (16 sensors working at 30 s or 1 min t ime step) and Micro Rain Radars (5 sensors, 100 m height resolution). Additionally, during the special observation period (SOP-1) and enhanced observation period (Sep-Dec 2012, Sep-Dec 2013) of the HyMeX (Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean 35 Experiment) project, two X-band radars provided precipitation measurements at very fine spatial and temporal scales (1 ha, 5min). Meteorological data are taken from the operational surface weather observation stations of Météo -France (including 2-m air temperature, atmospheric pressure, 2-m relative humidity, 10-m wind speed and direction, global radiation) at the hourly time resolution (6 stations in the region of interest). The monitoring of surface hydrology and suspended sediment is multi-scale and based on nested catchments. Three hydrometric stations measure water discharge at a 2 to 10 min time resolution. Two of these stations also measure additional physico-chemical variables (turbidity, temperature, 5 conductivity) and water samples are collected automatically during floods allowing further geochemical characterizat ion of water and suspended solids. Two experimental plots monitor overland flow and erosion at 1 min time resolution on a hillslope with vineyard. A network of 11 sensors installed in the intermittent hydrographic network continuously measures water level and water temperature in headwater subcatchments (from 0.17 km² to 116 km²) at a time resolution of 2 -5 min. A network of soil 10 moisture sensors enable the continuous measurement of soil volumetric water content at 20 min time resolution at 9 sites. Additionally, opportunistic observations (soil moisture measurements and stream gauging) were performed during floods between 2012 and 2014. The data are appropriate for understanding the rainfall variability in t ime and space at fine scales, improving areal rainfall estimations and progressing in distributed hydrological and erosion modelling.
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Guillaume Nord, B. Boudevillain, Alban Berne, F. Branger, Isabelle Braud, et al.. A high space-time resolution dataset linking meteorological forcing and hydro-sedimentary response in a mesoscale Mediterranean catchment (Auzon) of the Ardèche region, France. Earth System Science Data, Copernicus Publications, 2017, 9, pp.221-249. ⟨10.5194/essd-2016-32⟩. ⟨hal-02605003⟩



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