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Simultaneous exploration of nutrients and pollutants in human milk and their impact on preterm infant growth: An integrative cross-platform approach

Abstract : Early nutritional management including fortified human breastmilk is currently recommended to fulfil the energy demands and counterbalance risks associated to preterm birth. However, little is known about the potential adverse effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) carried in human milk on preterm infant growth. We conducted a pilot study proving the application of an integrative analytical approach based on mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to advanced statistical models, favouring the comprehensive molecular profiling to support the identification of multiple biomarkers. We applied this workflow in the frame of a preterm infants’ cohort to explore environmental determinants of growth. The combination of high resolution gas and liquid chromatography MS platforms generated a large molecular profile, including 102 pollutants and nutrients (targeted analysis) and 784 metabolites (non-targeted analysis). Data analysis consisted in a preliminary examination of associations between the signatures of POPs and the normalised growth of preterm infants, using multivariate linear regression adjusting for known confounding variables. A second analysis aimed to identify multidimensional biomarkers using a multiblock algorithm allowing the integration of multiple datasets in the growth model of preterm infants. The preliminary results did not suggest an impairment of preterm growth associated to the milk concentrations of POPs. The multiblock approach however revealed complex interrelated molecular networks of POPs, lipids, metabolites and amino acids in breastmilk associated to preterm infant growth, supporting the high potential of biomarkers exploration of this proposed workflow. Whereas the present study intended to identify simultaneously pollutant and nutrient exposure profiles associated to early preterm infant growth, this workflow may be easily adapted and applied to other matrices (e.g. serum) and research settings, favouring the functional exploration of environmental determinants of complex and multifactorial diseases.
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German Cano Sancho, Marie Cécile Alexandre-Gouabau, Thomas Moyon, Anne-Lise Royer, Yann Guitton, et al.. Simultaneous exploration of nutrients and pollutants in human milk and their impact on preterm infant growth: An integrative cross-platform approach. Environmental Research, Elsevier, 2020, 182, pp.109018. ⟨10.1016/j.envres.2019.109018⟩. ⟨hal-02620289⟩

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