Y. Seino, M. Fukushima, and D. Yabe, GIP and GLP-1, the two incretin hormones: similarities and differences, J Diabetes Investig, vol.1, pp.8-23, 2010.

E. E. Mulvihill and D. J. Drucker, Pharmacology, physiology, and mechanisms of action of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, Endocr Rev, vol.35, pp.992-1019, 2014.

S. A. Lee, Y. R. Kim, and E. J. Yang, CD26/DPP4 levels in peripheral blood and T cells in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.98, pp.2553-2561, 2013.

A. Stengel, M. Goebel-stengel, and P. Teuffel, Obese patients have higher circulating protein levels of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, Peptides, vol.61, pp.75-82, 2014.

H. Sell, M. Bluher, and N. Kloting, Adipose dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and obesity: correlation with insulin resistance and depot-specific release from adipose tissue in vivo and in vitro, Diabetes Care, vol.36, pp.4083-4090, 2013.

R. N. Kushwaha, W. Haq, and S. B. Katti, Sixteen-years of clinically relevant dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors for treatment of type-2 diabetes: a perspective, Curr Med Chem, vol.21, pp.4013-4045, 2014.

A. Waget, C. Cabou, and M. Masseboeuf, Physiological and pharmacological mechanisms through which the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin regulates glycemia in mice, Endocrinology, vol.152, pp.3018-3029, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00851695

E. E. Mulvihill, E. M. Varin, and B. Gladanac, Cellular sites and mechanisms linking reduction of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity to control of incretin hormone action and glucose homeostasis, Cell Metab, vol.25, pp.152-165, 2017.

A. Mortier, M. Gouwy, J. Van-damme, P. Proost, and S. Struyf, CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV-chemokine interactions: doubleedged regulation of inflammation and tumor biology, J Leukoc Biol, vol.99, pp.955-969, 2016.

R. Yazbeck, G. S. Howarth, and C. A. Abbott, Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors, an emerging drug class for inflammatory disease?, Trends Pharmacol Sci, vol.30, pp.600-607, 2009.

B. Hartmann, J. Thulesen, and H. Kissow, Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition enhances the intestinotrophic effect of glucagonlike peptide-2 in rats and mice, Endocrinology, vol.141, pp.4013-4020, 2000.

N. Wronkowitz, S. W. Gorgens, and T. Romacho, Soluble DPP4 induces inflammation and proliferation of human smooth muscle cells via protease-activated receptor 2, Biochim Biophys Acta, vol.1842, pp.1613-1621, 2014.

D. S. Lee, E. S. Lee, and M. M. Alam, Soluble DPP-4 up-regulates toll-like receptors and augments inflammatory reactions, which are ameliorated by vildagliptin or mannose-6-phosphate, Metabolism, vol.65, pp.89-101, 2016.

A. Makdissi, H. Ghanim, and M. Vora, Sitagliptin exerts an antinflammatory action, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.97, pp.3333-3341, 2012.

N. N. Ta, Y. Li, C. A. Schuyler, M. F. Lopes-virella, and Y. Huang, DPP-4 (CD26) inhibitor alogliptin inhibits TLR4-mediated ERK activation and ERK-dependent MMP-1 expression by U937 histiocytes, Atherosclerosis, vol.213, pp.429-435, 2010.

N. Ervinna, T. Mita, and E. Yasunari, Anagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscles and monocyte inflammatory reaction and attenuates atherosclerosis in male apo E-deficient mice, Endocrinology, vol.154, pp.1260-1270, 2013.

R. Santaolalla and M. T. Abreu, Innate immunity in the small intestine, Curr Opin Gastroenterol, vol.28, pp.124-129, 2012.

Y. L. He, Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vildagliptin, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.51, pp.147-162, 2012.

N. M. Delzenne, A. M. Neyrinck, F. Backhed, and P. D. Cani, Targeting gut microbiota in obesity: effects of prebiotics and probiotics, Nat Rev Endocrinol, vol.7, pp.639-646, 2011.

N. R. Shin, J. C. Lee, and H. Y. Lee, An increase in the Akkermansia spp. population induced by metformin treatment improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice, Gut, vol.63, pp.727-735, 2014.

N. D. Walker, N. R. Mcewan, and R. J. Wallace, Cloning and functional expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV from the ruminal bacterium Prevotella albensis M384(T), Microbiology, vol.149, pp.2227-2234, 2003.

T. Stressler, T. Eisele, M. Schlayer, S. Lutz-wahl, and L. Fischer, Characterization of the recombinant exopeptidases PepX and PepN from Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 12046 important for food protein hydrolysis, PLoS One, vol.8, p.70055, 2013.

Y. Sanz and F. Toldra, Purification and characterization of an Xprolyl-dipeptidyl peptidase from Lactobacillus sakei, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.67, pp.1815-1820, 2001.

Z. Zeng, J. Y. Luo, and F. L. Zuo, Bifidobacteria possess inhibitory activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, Lett Appl Microbiol, vol.62, pp.250-255, 2016.

Z. Zeng, J. L. Zuo, F. Chen, and S. , Screening for potential novel probiotic Lactobacillus strains based on high dipeptidyl peptidase IV and ?glucosidase inhibitory activity, J Funct Foods, vol.20, pp.486-495

Q. Zhang, X. Xiao, and M. Li, Vildagliptin increases butyrateproducing bacteria in the gut of diabetic rats, PLoS One, vol.12, p.184735, 2017.

E. Grasset, A. Puel, and J. Charpentier, A specific gut microbiota dysbiosis of type 2 diabetic mice induces GLP-1 resistance through an enteric NO-dependent and gut-brain axis mechanism, Cell Metab, vol.25, p.1075, 2017.

L. B. Bindels, A. M. Neyrinck, and S. P. Claus, Synbiotic approach restores intestinal homeostasis and prolongs survival in leukaemic mice with cachexia, ISME J, vol.10, pp.1456-1470, 2016.

L. B. Bindels, S. Munoz, R. R. Gomes-neto, and J. C. , Resistant starch can improve insulin sensitivity independently of the gut microbiota, vol.5, p.12, 2017.

N. Salazar, E. M. Dewulf, and A. M. Neyrinck, Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women, Clin Nutr, vol.34, pp.501-507, 2015.

A. M. Neyrinck, B. Taminiau, and H. Walgrave, Spirulina protects against hepatic inflammation in aging: an effect related to the modulation of the gut microbiota, Nutrients, vol.9, 2017.

A. M. Neyrinck, H. Alexiou, and N. M. Delzenne, Kupffer cell activity is involved in the hepatoprotective effect of dietary oligofructose in rats with endotoxic shock, J Nutr, vol.134, pp.1124-1129, 2004.

A. M. Neyrinck, C. Gomez, and N. M. Delzenne, Precision-cut liver slices in culture as a tool to assess the physiological involvement of Kupffer cells in hepatic metabolism, Comp Hepatol, vol.3, issue.1, p.45, 2004.

F. Suriano, L. B. Bindels, and J. Verspreet, Fat binding capacity and modulation of the gut microbiota both determine the effect of wheat bran fractions on adiposity, Sci Rep, vol.7, p.5621, 2017.

N. Reichardt, S. H. Duncan, and P. Young, Phylogenetic distribution of three pathways for propionate production within the human gut microbiota, ISME J, vol.8, pp.1323-1335, 2014.

P. D. Cani, S. Possemiers, and T. Van-de-wiele, Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability, Gut, vol.58, pp.1091-1103, 2009.

P. Richards, R. Pais, and A. M. Habib, High fat diet impairs the function of glucagon-like peptide-1 producing L-cells, Peptides, vol.77, pp.21-27, 2016.

A. Psichas, M. L. Sleeth, and K. G. Murphy, The short chain fatty acid propionate stimulates GLP-1 and PYY secretion via free fatty acid receptor 2 in rodents, Int J Obes, vol.39, pp.424-429, 2015.

S. Vaishnava, C. L. Behrendt, A. S. Ismail, L. Eckmann, and L. V. Hooper, Paneth cells directly sense gut commensals and maintain homeostasis at the intestinal host-microbial interface, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.105, pp.20858-20863, 2008.

A. De, A. Pompilio, and J. Francis, Antidiabetic drugs 'gliptins' affect biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, Microbiol Res, vol.209, pp.79-85, 2018.

Y. Y. Lam, C. W. Ha, and C. R. Campbell, Increased gut permeability and microbiota change associate with mesenteric fat inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice, PLoS One, vol.7, p.34233, 2012.

A. Moya-perez, A. Neef, and Y. Sanz, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 reduces obesity-associated inflammation by restoring the lymphocyte-macrophage balance and gut microbiota structure in high-fat diet-fed mice, PLoS One, vol.10, p.126976, 2015.

L. Geurts, V. Lazarevic, and M. Derrien, Altered gut microbiota and endocannabinoid system tone in obese and diabetic leptinresistant mice: impact on apelin regulation in adipose tissue, Front Microbiol, vol.2, p.149, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00617647

F. Scaldaferri, M. Pizzoferrato, V. Gerardi, L. Lopetuso, and A. Gasbarrini, The gut barrier: new acquisitions and therapeutic approaches, J Clin Gastroenterol, vol.46, pp.12-17, 2012.

A. Everard, V. Lazarevic, and N. Gaia, Microbiome of prebiotic-treated mice reveals novel targets involved in host response during obesity, ISME J, vol.8, pp.2116-2130, 2014.

S. J. Lee, J. Lee, and K. K. Li, Disruption of the murine Glp2r impairs Paneth cell function and increases susceptibility to small bowel enteritis, Endocrinology, vol.153, pp.1141-1151, 2012.

D. J. Drucker, P. Erlich, S. L. Asa, and P. L. Brubaker, Induction of intestinal epithelial proliferation by glucagon-like peptide 2, Proc Natl Acad Sci, pp.7911-7916, 1996.

F. Briand, E. Brousseau, M. Quinsat, R. Burcelin, and T. Sulpice, Obeticholic acid raises LDL-cholesterol and reduces HDL-cholesterol in the diet-induced NASH (DIN) hamster model, Eur J Pharmacol, vol.818, pp.449-456, 2018.

L. Sheng, P. K. Jena, and Y. Hu, Hepatic inflammation caused by dysregulated bile acid synthesis is reversible by butyrate supplementation, J Pathol, vol.243, pp.431-441, 2017.

A. J. Scheen, Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol.12, pp.648-658, 2010.