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Lignocellulosic biomass fractionation by mineral acids and resulting extract purification processes: Conditions, yields, and purities

Abstract : Fractionation of lignocellulose is a fundamental step in the valorization of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to produce various sustainable fuels and chemicals. Mineral acid fractionation is one of the most applied process and leads to the solubilization and hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, whereas most of the lignin remains insoluble and can be separated from the extract. The obtained monomeric sugars in the acid extract are in solution with salts, sugar degradation products, and phenolic molecules. Downstream processing is required to purify the sugars and further valorize them into fuels or chemicals with the use of chemical or biochemical reactions. This purification step also allows the recycling of the mineral acid and the valorization of the sugar degradation products and the co-extracted phenolic molecules, adding value to the whole biorefinery scheme. Many purification techniques have been studied, providing several options in terms of yields, purities, and cost of the process. This review presents the conditions used for the mineral acid fractionation step and a wide variety of purification techniques applied on the obtained hydrolysate, with a focus on the associated yields and purities. Values from the literature are expressed in a standard way in order to simplify comparison between the different processes.
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Vincent Oriez, Jérôme Peydecastaing, Pierre-Yves Pontalier. Lignocellulosic biomass fractionation by mineral acids and resulting extract purification processes: Conditions, yields, and purities. Molecules, MDPI, 2019, 24 (23), 21 p. ⟨10.3390/molecules24234273⟩. ⟨hal-02622871⟩

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