U. Cirad, . Isem, and . Ta-b-116, , vol.16, p.34398

, Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Egypt. 6 School Of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, issue.5, 11241.

, World population prospects: the 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables, 2015.

. Fao, How to feed the world in 2050, 2015.

. Fao, Contributing to food security and nutrition for all, 2016.

, Earth Policy Institute. World animal production by type, 1950.

A. Welch, R. Hoenig, J. Stieglitz, D. Benetti, A. Tacon et al., From fishing to the sustainable farming of carnivorous marine finfish, Rev Fish Sci, vol.18, pp.235-282, 2010.

H. De-verdal, W. Rosario, M. Vandeputte, N. Muyalde, P. Morissens et al., Response to selection for growth in an interspecific hybrid between Oreochromis mossambicus and O. niloticus in two distinct environments, Aquaculture, vol.430, pp.159-65, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01954295

R. G. Doupé and A. J. Lymbery, Indicators of genetic variation for feed conversion efficiency in black bream, Aquac Res, vol.35, pp.1305-1314, 2004.

K. Kolstad, B. Grisdale-helland, and B. Gjerde, Family differences in feed efficiency in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Aquaculture, vol.241, pp.169-77, 2004.

H. De-verdal, H. Komen, E. Quillet, B. Chatain, F. Allal et al., Improving feed efficiency in fish using selective breeding: a review, Rev Aquac, vol.10, pp.833-851, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01602277

T. C. Huntington and M. R. Hasan, Fish as feed inputs for aquaculture: practices, sustainability and implications. Rome: FAO: Fisheries and aquaculture technical paper, pp.1-61, 2009.

J. Aubin, E. Papatryphon, J. Van-der-werf, and S. Chatzifotis, Assessment of the environmental impact of carnivorous finfish production systems using life cycle assessment, J Clean Prod, vol.17, pp.354-61, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01460879

T. G. Gaylord and I. Gatlin, Dietary protein and energy modifications to maximize compensatory growth of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Aquaculture, vol.194, pp.337-385, 2001.

B. Guroy, I. Sahin, S. Kayali, S. Mantoglu, B. Canan et al., Evaluation of feed utilization and growth performance of juvenile striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophtalmus fed with varying inclusion levels of corn gluten meal, Aquac Nutr, vol.19, pp.258-66, 2013.

R. C. Reigh and S. C. Ellis, Effects of dietary soybean and fish-protein ratios on growth and body-composition of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed isonitrogenous diests, Aquaculture, vol.104, pp.279-92, 1992.

C. Y. Cho and D. P. Bureau, A review of diet formulation strategies and feeding systems to reduce excretory and feed wastes in aquaculture, Aquac Res, vol.32, pp.349-60, 2001.

G. M. Turchini, B. E. Torstensen, and W. Ng, Fish oil replacement in finfish nutrition, Rev Aquac, vol.1, pp.10-57, 2009.

D. A. Emmerson, Commercial approaches to genetic selection for growthand feed conversion in domestic poultry, Poult Sci, vol.76, pp.1121-1126, 1997.

M. Henryon, A. Jokumsen, P. Berg, I. Lund, P. B. Pedersen et al., Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout, Aquaculture, vol.209, pp.59-76, 2002.

A. Kause, D. Tobin, D. F. Houlihan, S. Martin, E. A. Mäntysaari et al., Feed efficiency of rainbow trout can be improved through selection: different genetic potential on alternative diets, J Anim Sci, vol.84, pp.807-824, 2006.

C. D. Quinton, A. Kause, J. Koskela, and O. Ritola, Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environment, Genet Sel Evol, vol.39, pp.431-477, 2007.

J. Thodesen, B. Grisdale-helland, S. J. Helland, and B. Gjerde, Feed intake, growth and feed utilization of offsring from wild and selected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Aquaculture, vol.180, pp.237-283, 1999.

H. Y. Ogata, H. Oku, and T. Murai, Growth, feed efficiency and feed intake of offspring from selected and wild Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), Aquaculture, vol.211, pp.183-93, 2002.

A. Kause, A. Kiessling, S. Martin, D. Houlihan, and K. Ruohonen, Genetic improvement of feed conversion ratio via indirect selection against lipid deposition in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaun), Br J Nutr, vol.116, pp.1656-65, 2016.

R. Saintilan, I. Mérour, L. Brossard, T. Tribout, J. Y. Dourmad et al., Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits, J Anim Sci, vol.91, pp.2542-54, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01001321

H. De-verdal, A. Narcy, D. Bastianelli, H. Chapuis, N. Même et al., Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 1. Genetic parameters of anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency, BMC Genet, vol.12, p.59, 2011.

T. Gjedrem, Genetic variation in quantitative traits and selective breeding in fish and shellfish, Aquaculture, vol.33, pp.51-72, 1983.

L. Grima, E. Quillet, T. Boujard, C. Robert-granié, B. Chatain et al., Genetic variability in residual feed intake in rainbow trout clones and testing of indirect selection criteria, Genet Sel Evol, vol.40, pp.607-631, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894645

I. D. Mccarthy, D. F. Houlihan, C. G. Carter, and K. Moutou, Variation in individual food consumption rates of fish and its implications for the study of fish nutrition and physiology, Proc Nutr Soc, vol.52, pp.427-463, 1993.

C. Talbot and P. J. Higgins, A radiographic method for feeding studies on fish using metallic iron powder as a marker, J Fish Biol, vol.23, pp.211-231, 1983.

A. Kause, D. Tobin, A. Dobly, D. Houlihan, S. Martin et al., Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout, Genet Sel Evol, vol.38, pp.389-409, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894545

C. D. Quinton, A. Kause, K. Ruohonen, and J. Koskela, Genetic relationships of body composition and feed utilization traits in European whitefish (Coregonus larvaretus L.) and implications for selective breeding in fishmeal-and soybean meal-based diet environments, J Anim Sci, vol.85, pp.3198-208, 2007.

H. De-verdal, W. Mekkawy, C. E. Lind, M. Vandeputte, B. Chatain et al., Measuring individual feed efficiency and its correlations with performance traits in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, vol.468, pp.489-95, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01530809

R. W. Ponzoni, H. Nguyen, N. Khaw, H. L. Hamzah, A. et al., Genetic improvement of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with special reference to the work conducted by the WorldFish center with the GIFT strain, Rev Aquac, vol.3, pp.27-41, 2011.

C. Mélard, E. Baras, and D. Desprez, Compensatory growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Fourth international symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, 1997.

R. M. Koch, L. A. Swiger, D. Chambers, and K. E. Gregory, Efficiency of feed use in beef cattle, J Anim Sci, vol.22, pp.486-94, 1963.

I. Lupatsch, G. W. Kissil, and D. Sklan, Comparison of energy and protein efficiency among three fish species gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus): energy expenditure for protein and lipid deposition, Aquaculture, vol.225, pp.175-89, 2003.

M. Kovac, E. Groeneveld, and A. Garcia-cortez, VCE 6 User's manual. version 6. 0.2, 2008.

A. Neumaier and E. Groeneveld, Restricted maximum likelihood of covariances in sparse linear models, Genet Sel Evol, vol.30, pp.13-26, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00894192

D. S. Falconer and T. Mackay, Introduction to quantitative genetics, 1996.

A. Alanärä, S. Kadri, and M. Paspatis, Feeding management, Food intake in fish, pp.332-53, 2001.

I. D. Mccarthy, C. G. Carter, and D. F. Houlihan, The effect of feeding hierarchy on individual variability in daily feeding of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), J Fish Biol, vol.41, pp.257-63, 1992.

M. Sanchez, B. Chevassus, L. Labbé, E. Quillet, and M. Mambrini, Selection for growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta) affects feed intake but not feed efficiency, Aquat Living Resour, vol.14, pp.41-49, 2001.

A. Clarke and N. M. Johnston, Scaling of metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in teleost fish, J Anim Ecol, vol.68, pp.893-905, 1999.

L. Grima, M. Vandeputte, F. Ruelle, A. Vergnet, M. Mambrini et al., In search for indirect criteria to improve residual feed intake in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Part I: phenotypic relationship between residual feed intake and body weight variations during feed deprivation and re-feeding periods, Aquaculture, vol.300, pp.50-58, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01193451