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A simulation study of synergies and tradeoffs between multiple ecosystem services in apple orchards

Abstract : In this study, we analyzed the patterns of relationships between multiple ecosystem services in apple orchards by considering the cascade that links agricultural practices to ecosystem functions and then to ecosystem services. Five major ecosystem services were considered: fruit production, soil nitrogen availability, climate regulation, water cycle maintenance and regulation, including water quality, and pest and disease control. We derived indicators of ecosystem functions and of ecosystem services from model simulations of orchards driven by virtual cropping systems combining various modalities of nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, and pest control. We deciphered the links between practices and ecosystem functions and between those functions and ecosystem services and clustered cropping systems according to their ecosystem service supply. Noticeable synergies were found between yield, fruit mass and sequestrated carbon. The contribution of carbon allocation to fruit in sequestrated carbon was considerable. Nitrogen absorption, impacted by fertilization and irrigation, was a major driver of these relationships. The typology built from these virtual cropping systems clearly followed a gradient of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Five cropping systems optimized the compromise between provisioning and regulating services and were essentially characterized by organo-mineral fertilization, comfort irrigation, apple scab-resistant cultivars and exclusion nets against codling moth. Our approach could contribute to the design of cropping systems that would provide an acceptable compromise between multiple ecosystem services in orchards.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 21, 2021 - 9:03:24 PM
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Constance Demestihas, Daniel Plénet, Michel Génard, Christiane Raynal, Francoise Lescourret. A simulation study of synergies and tradeoffs between multiple ecosystem services in apple orchards. Journal of Environmental Management, Elsevier, 2019, 236, pp.1-16. ⟨10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.073⟩. ⟨hal-02625585⟩

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