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Chronic Intake of Sucrose Accelerates Sarcopenia in Older Male Rats through Alterations in Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Protein Synthesis

Abstract : Background: Today, high chronic intake of added sugars is frequent, which leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. These 3 factors could reduce meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and thus aggravate the age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia).Objectives: Our aims were to determine if added sugars could accelerate sarcopenia and to assess the capacity of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents to prevent this.Methods: For 5 mo, 16-mo-old male rats were starch fed (13% sucrose and 49% wheat starch diet) or sucrose fed (62% sucrose and 0% wheat starch diet) with or without rutin (5 g/kg diet), vitamin E (4 times), vitamin A (2 times), vitamin D (5 times), selenium (10 times), and zinc (+44%) (R) supplementation. We measured the evolution of body composition and inflammation, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) concentration and total antioxidant status, insulin sensitivity (oral-glucose-tolerance test), muscle weight, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione concentration, and in vivo protein synthesis rates.Results: Sucrose-fed rats lost significantly more lean body mass (−8.1% vs. −5.4%, respectively) and retained more fat mass (+0.2% vs. −33%, respectively) than starch-fed rats. Final muscle mass was 11% higher in starch-fed rats than in sucrose-fed rats. Sucrose had little effect on inflammation, oxidative stress, and plasma IGF-I concentration but reduced the insulin sensitivity index (divided by 2). Meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis was significantly lower in sucrose-fed rats (+7.3%) than in starch-fed rats (+22%). R supplementation slightly but significantly reduced oxidative stress and increased muscle protein concentration (+4%) but did not restore postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis.Conclusions: High chronic sucrose intake accelerates sarcopenia in older male rats through an alteration of postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. This effect could be explained by a decrease of insulin sensitivity rather than by changes in plasma IGF-I, inflammation, and/or oxidative stress.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02630933
Déposant : Migration Prodinra <>
Soumis le : mercredi 27 mai 2020 - 06:48:36
Dernière modification le : mardi 23 février 2021 - 15:26:07

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Eva Gatineau, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Carole Migne, Sergio Polakof, Dominique Dardevet, et al.. Chronic Intake of Sucrose Accelerates Sarcopenia in Older Male Rats through Alterations in Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Protein Synthesis. Journal of Nutrition, American Society for Nutrition, 2015, 145 (5), pp.923-930. ⟨10.3945/jn.114.205583⟩. ⟨hal-02630933⟩

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