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Tryptophan metabolism, growth responses, and postprandial insulin metabolism in weaned piglets according to the dietary provision of niacin (vitamin B) and tryptophan

Abstract : The present experiment aimed to determine if Trp metabolism and growth responses to dietary Trp are modulated by dietary niacin (B) in weanling piglets. Piglets weaned at 3 wk of age were distributed 1 wk later (7.6 kg of BW, SEM = 0.1) in 52 pens of 2 animals each. Pens were assigned to factorial dietary treatments with 2 additions of B, 15 mg/kg (LB3) vs. 45 mg/kg (HB3) and 2 additions of Trp, 0 mg/kg (-Trp) vs. 1 mg/kg (+Trp) for Trp to Lys ratios of 0.16 vs. 0.24, respectively. Growth performance was recorded every week from 4 to 10 wk of age. Fasting blood samples were taken at 4, 6, 8, and 10 wk of age. From 4 to 10 wk of age, ADFI tended to be greater ( = 0.10) in HB3 than in LB3 (1,031 vs. 1,003 g, SEM = 7), and this was reflected ( = 0.06) by ADG (642 vs. 623 g, SEM = 7). No treatment effect was observed on plasma Trp or kynurenine (Kyn), an intermediate metabolite of Trp catabolism. The response of plasma nicotinamide (Nam), a product of Trp catabolism and an indicator of B status, to dietary B differed according to treatments (interaction Trp × B, < 0.01) with values of 1.4, 3.3, 4.1, and 5.3 μM (SEM = 0.1) in LB3-Trp, HB3-Trp, LB3+Trp, and HB3+Trp, respectively. At 11 wk of age, postprandial blood samples were collected from 6 piglets per treatment for measurements of Trp and insulin metabolism. Postprandial plasma Trp (96.4 vs. 72.2 μ, SEM = 3.4) and Kyn (1.7 vs. 1.3 μ, SEM = 0.1) were greater ( < 0.01) in +Trp vs. -Trp. Postprandial plasma Nam was greater ( < 0.01) in +Trp vs. -Trp (3.4 vs. 1.9 µ, SEM = 0.3) and in HB3 vs. LB3 piglets (3.4 vs. 1.9 µ, SEM = 0.3). Postprandial peaks and areas under curves of C-peptide and glucose were not affected by treatments. However, for insulin, the postprandial peak was lower in +Trp vs. -Trp piglets in the LB3 group (interaction Trp × B, < 0.05); values were 1.3, 1.0, 0.7, and 1.0 n (SEM = 0.1) in LB3-Trp, HB3-Trp, LB3+Trp, and HB3+Trp, respectively. The peak value of the molar ratio insulin:C-peptide was lower ( < 0.02) in +Trp vs. -Trp piglets (0.56 vs. 0.73, SEM = 0.05). The responses observed on growth performance and plasma Nam suggest that the LB3 level was suboptimal. According also to plasma Nam, it appears that supplemental dietary B can attenuate Trp oxidation toward niacin metabolites. Postprandial profiles of insulin and C-peptide indicate that Trp action is exerted on insulin clearance rather than on insulin secretion in piglets, without apparent consequences on glucose utilization.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 27, 2020 - 8:25:03 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 6, 2022 - 4:08:15 PM

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J Jacques Matte, Etienne Corrent, Aude Simongiovanni, Nathalie Le Floc'H. Tryptophan metabolism, growth responses, and postprandial insulin metabolism in weaned piglets according to the dietary provision of niacin (vitamin B) and tryptophan. Journal of Animal Science, American Society of Animal Science, 2016, 94 (5), pp.1961-1971. ⟨10.2527/jas.2015-0221⟩. ⟨hal-02631528⟩

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