, Sophie Thomas received a PhD fellowship from INRA and the R egion, French Ministry of Agriculture (contract C06/02), and the VirAphid project (Project ANR-2010-STRA-001-01) of the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)

R. L. Blackman and V. F. Eastop, Taxonomic issues, Aphids as Crop Pests, pp.10-11, 2007.

N. Boissot, S. Thomas, N. Sauvion, C. Marchal, C. Pavis et al., Mapping and validation of QTLs for resistance to aphids and whiteflies in melon, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol.121, pp.117-125, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01927472

N. Boissot, S. Thomas, V. Chovelon, and H. Lecoq, NBS-LRRmediated resistance triggered by aphids: viruses do not adapt; aphids adapt via different mechanisms, Bmc Plant Biology, vol.16, p.25, 2016.

R. Boll, E. Franco, A. Geria, J. Moutin, J. Rochat et al., D enombrement visuel du puceron Aphis gossypii Glover en culture de melon au champ, Phytoma, vol.548, pp.47-50, 2002.

F. Van-den-bosch and C. A. Gilligan, Measures of durability of resistance, Phytopathology, vol.93, pp.616-625, 2003.

T. Br-evault, J. Carletto, J. Tribot, and F. Vanlerberghe-masutti, Insecticide use and competition shape the genetic diversity of the aphid Aphis gossypii in a cotton-growing landscape, Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.101, pp.407-413, 2011.

J. K. Brown, Durable resistance of crops to disease: a Darwinian perspective, Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol.53, pp.513-519, 2015.

J. J. Burdon and P. H. Thrall, Spatial and temporal patterns in coevolving plant and pathogen associations, American Naturalist, vol.153, pp.15-33, 1999.

J. Carletto, E. Lombaert, P. Chavigny, T. Brevault, L. Lapchin et al., Ecological specialization of the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover on cultivated host plants, Molecular Ecology, vol.18, pp.2198-2212, 2009.

J. Carletto, T. Martin, F. Vanlerberghe-masutti, and T. Br, Insecticide resistance traits differ among and within host races in Aphis gossypii, Pest Management Science, vol.66, pp.301-307, 2010.

C. Dedryver, A. L. Ralec, and F. Fabre, The conflicting relationships between aphids and men: a review of aphid damage and control strategies, Comptes-Rendus de Biologies, vol.333, pp.539-553, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00729628

A. F. Dixon, . Chapman, . Hall, U. K. London, C. Dogimont et al., Aphid resistance in cultivated crops: genetic and molecular bases and interaction with aphid populations, Comptes-Rendus de Biologies, vol.333, pp.566-576, 1985.

G. Evanno, S. Regnaut, and J. Goudet, Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study, Molecular Ecology, vol.14, pp.2611-2620, 2005.

F. Fabre, E. Rousseau, L. Mailleret, and B. Moury, Epidemiological and evolutionary management of plant resistance: optimizing the deployment of cultivar mixtures in time and space in agricultural landscapes, Evolutionary Applications, vol.8, pp.919-932, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01239676

S. J. Fuller, P. Chavigny, L. Lapchin, and F. Vanlerberghe-masutti, Variation in clonal diversity in glasshouse infestations of the aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover in southern France, Molecular Ecology, vol.8, pp.1867-1877, 1999.

F. Gould, Simulation models for predicting durability of insectresistant germ plasm: a deterministic diploid, two-locus model, Environmental Entomology, vol.15, pp.1-10, 1986.

F. Gould, Simulation models for predicting durability of insectresistant germ plasm: hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)-resistant winter wheat, Environmental Entomology, vol.15, pp.11-23, 1986.

F. Gould, Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology, Annual Review of Entomology, vol.43, pp.701-726, 1998.

F. Gould, Bt-resistance management-theory meets data, Nature Biotechnology, vol.21, pp.1450-1451, 2003.

J. Granett, M. A. Walker, L. Kocsis, and A. D. Omer, Biology and management of grape Phylloxera, Annual Review of Entomology, vol.46, pp.387-412, 2001.

D. F. Hales, J. Tomiuk, K. W?-ohrmann, and P. Sunnucks, Evolutionary and genetic aspects of aphid biology: a review, European Journal of Entomology, vol.94, pp.1-55, 1997.

R. Johnson, A critical analysis of durable resistance, Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol.22, pp.309-330, 1984.

R. Johnson and C. N. Law, Genetic control of durable resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) in the wheat cultivar Hybride de Bersee, Annals of Applied Biology, vol.81, pp.385-391, 1975.

O. Kaltz and J. A. Shykoff, Within-and among-population variation in infectivity, latency and spore production in a host-pathogen system, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.15, pp.850-860, 2002.

G. A. Korosi, C. J. Trethowan, and K. S. Powell, Screening for rootstock resistance to grapevine Phylloxera genotypes from Australian vineyards under controlled conditions. Paper read at Third International Grapevine Phylloxera Symposium, 2007.

E. Lombaert, J. Carletto, C. Piotte, X. Fauvergue, H. Lecoq et al., Response of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, to host-plant resistance: evidence for high adaptative potential despite low genetic variability, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol.133, pp.46-56, 2009.

B. F. Manly, Randomization and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology, 1991.

B. A. Mcdonald and C. Linde, Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance, Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol.40, pp.349-379, 2002.

R. W. Michelmore, M. Christopoulou, and K. S. Caldwell, Impacts of resistance gene genetics, function, and evolution on a durable future, Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol.51, pp.291-319, 2013.

C. Mundt, Durable resistance: a key to sustainable management of pathogens and pests, Infection, Genetics and Evolution, vol.27, pp.446-455, 2014.

R. R. Nelson, Genetics of horizontal resistance to plant diseases, Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol.16, pp.359-378, 1978.

J. Papaix, H. Goyeau, P. Du-cheyron, H. Monod, and C. Lannou, Influence of cultivated landscape composition on variety resistance: an assessment based on wheat leaf rust epidemics, New Phytologist, vol.191, pp.1095-1107, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01019779

J. Papaix, J. J. Burdon, J. S. Zhan, and P. H. Thrall, Crop pathogen emergence and evolution in agro-ecological landscapes, Evolutionary Applications, vol.8, pp.385-402, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02640601

D. R. Porter, J. D. Burd, K. A. Shufran, J. A. Webster, and G. L. Teetes, Greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotypes: selected by resistant cultivars or preadapted opportunists, Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.90, pp.1055-1065, 1997.

J. K. Pritchard, M. Stephens, and P. Donnelly, Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data, Genetics, vol.155, pp.945-959, 2000.

J. Quenouille, J. Montarry, A. Palloix, and B. Moury, Farther, slower, stronger: how the plant genetic background protects a major resistance gene from breakdown, Molecular Plant Pathology, vol.14, pp.109-118, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01208677

A. M. Sage-palloix, F. Jourdan, T. Phaly, G. Nemouchi, V. Lefebvre et al., Analysis of diversity in pepper genetic resources: distribution of horticultural and resistance traits in the INRA pepper germplasm. Paper read at 13th EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Capsicum and eggplant, 2007.

A. Schoeny, N. Boissot, J. Lambion, C. Wipf-scheibel, P. Mistral et al., Conception and evaluation of flower strips to control aphids and viruses in melon crops, Innovations Agronomiques, vol.40, pp.113-114, 2014.

C. M. Smith and W. Chuang, Plant resistance to aphid feeding: behavioral, physiological, genetic and molecular cues regulate aphid host selection and feeding, Pest Management Science, vol.70, pp.528-540, 2014.

S. Thomas, N. Boissot, and F. Vanlerberghe-masutti, What do spring migrants reveal about sex and host selection in the melon aphid?, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.12, p.47, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02650759

S. Thomas, C. Dogimont, and N. Boissot, Association between Aphis gossypii genotype and phenotype on melon accessions, Arthropod-Plant Interactions, vol.6, pp.93-101, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02650233

P. H. Thrall, J. G. Oakeshott, G. Fitt, S. Southerton, J. J. Burdon et al., Evolution in agriculture: the application of evolutionary approaches to the management of biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems, Evolutionary Applications, vol.4, pp.200-215, 2011.

F. Vanlerberghe-masutti, P. Chavigny, and S. J. Fuller, Characterization of microsatellite loci in the aphid species Aphis gossypii Glover, Molecular Ecology, vol.8, pp.685-702, 1999.

J. Vanoverbeke and L. D. Meester, Among-populational genetic differentiation in the cyclical parthenogen Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Anomopoda) and its relation to geographic distance and clonal diversity, Hydrobiologia, vol.360, pp.135-142, 1997.

V. Cruz, C. M. , J. Bai, I. Ona, H. Leung et al., Predicting durability of a disease resistance gene based on assessment of the fitness loss and epidemiological consequences of avirulence gene mutation, Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, vol.97, pp.13500-13505, 2000.

J. S. Zhan, P. H. Thrall, J. Papaix, L. H. Xie, and J. J. Burdon, Playing on a pathogen's weakness: using evolution to guide sustainable plant disease control strategies, Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol.53, pp.19-43, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01536434

J. Z. Zhao, J. Cao, Y. Li, H. L. Collins, R. T. Roush et al., Transgenic plants expressing two Bacillus thuringiensis toxins delay insect resistance evolution, Nature Biotechnology, vol.21, pp.1493-1497, 2003.