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Etat des lieux et leviers pour réduire les pertes alimentaires dans les filières françaises

Abstract : Data on the extent of food loss at the upstream stages of supply chains is currently scarce, in France, in Europe and abroad. This study conducted by Inra working groups organized according to product supply chains has several aims: obtain knowledge, for France, on the extent of food loss, from primary production to retail, on its determinants and fate. The study identified reduction measures to be implemented, and research gaps to be closed in order to support food loss reduction. Four plant supply chains (cereals, pulses, oil crops, fruits/vegetables/potatoes) and six animal supply chains (milk, egg, beef, lamb, pork, broiler chicken and spent hens, and trout) have been analyzed. In this study, food loss is defined as discarded or lost food products initially intended for human consumption, unless they are used for animal feed (excluding pet-food). Results show a diffuse distribution of food loss across the supply chains. All stages seem to be concerned; their role with regard to food loss varies between product supply chains. Overall, losses at primary production (losses at harvest, decision against harvest, discard at harvest, for example) are more important in plant supply chains (2-6% in cereals, pulses and oil crops; 9% in fruits and vegetables, and potatoes) than in animal supply chains (for example 1% of cow milk, 0,5% for eggs, less than 1% for meat). In meat supply chains, discard due to safety reasons and only partial consumption of less nobles meat pieces, like offal, determine food loss at slaughter and cutting. Based on our study results, a range of 5-10% food loss with up to 12% for fruits, vegetables and potatoes, from production to processing (to distribution for fruits and vegetables) can be assumed. Plant supply chains tend to perform in the upper range and this despite the fact that discards are partly used to feed farm animal which in turn diminishes food loss, according to our definition. With regard to complexity of transformation pathways in some supply chains, food loss data is difficult to obtain. The fate of discarded or lost amounts is not always available at the sector level. Overall, the study faced the problem of the confidential character of data from business or professional representatives. Quantification difficulties, however, do not prevent from identifying loss reduction measures. These are of different nature: technical (progress on breeding and genetics, optimization of material for harvest, for processing and cleaning etc.), organizational (improved coordination of supply and demand, etc.), regulatory (expiry dates, etc.) and social and cultural standards (consumer expectations determining food loss at downstream stages for example). For some of these measures, further research is necessary.
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Barbara Redlingshofer, Bernard Coudurier, Martine Georget. Etat des lieux et leviers pour réduire les pertes alimentaires dans les filières françaises. Innovations Agronomiques, INRAE, 2015, 48, pp.23-57. ⟨10.15454/1.462270509589515E12⟩. ⟨hal-02636281⟩

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