T. L. Root, J. T. Price, K. R. Hall, S. H. Schneider, and C. Rosenzweig, Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants, Nature, vol.421, pp.57-60, 2003.

E. Post, M. C. Forchhammer, M. S. Bret-harte, T. V. Callaghan, and T. R. Christensen, Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change, Science, vol.325, pp.1355-1358, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00496209

J. E. Lane, L. Kruuk, A. Charmantier, J. O. Murie, and F. S. Dobson, Delayed phenology and reduced fitness associated with climate change in a wild hibernator, Nature, vol.489, pp.554-557, 2012.

D. Réale, A. G. Mcadam, S. Boutin, and D. Berteaux, Genetic and plastic responses of a northern mammal to climate change, Proc R Soc B, vol.270, pp.591-596, 2003.

, IPCC (2013) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Fifth Assessment Report

C. Parmesan, Inuences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming, Glob Chang Biol, vol.13, pp.1860-1872, 2007.

C. Parmesan and G. Yohe, A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems, Nature, vol.421, pp.37-42, 2003.

T. Price, M. Kirkpatrick, and S. J. Arnold, Directional selection and the evolution of breeding date in birds, Science, vol.240, pp.798-799, 1988.

P. O. Dunn and D. W. Winkler, Climate change has affected the breeding date of tree swallows throughout North America, Proc R Soc B, vol.266, pp.2487-2490, 1999.

H. Crick, The impact of climate change on birds, Ibis, vol.146, pp.48-56, 2004.

T. Coulson, L. Kruuk, G. Tavecchia, J. M. Pemberton, and T. H. Clutton-brock, Estimating selection on neonatal traits in red deer using elasticity path analysis, Evolution, vol.57, pp.2879-2892, 2003.

T. E. Reed, P. Warzybok, A. J. Wilson, R. W. Bradley, and S. Wanless, Timing is everything: exible phenology and shifting selection in a colonial seabird, J Anim Ecol, vol.78, pp.376-387, 2009.

K. Moyes, D. H. Nussey, M. N. Clements, F. E. Guinness, and A. Morris, Advancing breeding phenology in response to environmental change in a wild red deer population, Glob Chang Biol, vol.17, pp.2455-2469, 2011.

T. H. Clutton-brock, S. D. Albon, and F. E. Guinness, Fitness costs of gestation and lactation in wild mammals, Nature, vol.337, pp.260-262, 1989.

A. J. Van-noordwijk, R. H. Mccleery, and C. M. Perrins, Selection for the timing of great tit breeding in relation to caterpillar growth and temperature, J Anim Ecol, vol.64, pp.451-458, 1995.

V. Devictor, C. Van-swaay, T. Brereton, L. Brotons, and D. Chamberlain, Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butteries at a continental scale, Nature Clim Change, vol.2, pp.121-124, 2012.

N. C. Stenseth and A. Mysterud, Climate, changing phenology, and other life history traits: nonlinearity and matchmismatch to the environment, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.99, pp.13379-13381, 2002.

M. E. Visser, C. Both, M. M. Lambrechts, and W. F. Moller, Global climate change leads to mistimed avian reproduction, Adv Ecol Res, vol.35, pp.89-110, 2004.

R. Przybylo, B. C. Sheldon, and J. Merilä, Climatic effects on breeding and morphology: evidence for phenotypic plasticity, J Anim Ecol, vol.69, pp.395-403, 2000.

D. H. Nussey, E. Postma, P. Gienapp, and M. Visser, Science, vol.310, pp.304-306, 2005.

M. E. Visser and C. Both, Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: the need for a yardstick, Proc R Soc B, vol.272, pp.2561-2569, 2005.

T. E. Reed, R. S. Waples, D. E. Schindler, J. J. Hard, and M. T. Kinnison, Phenotypic plasticity and population viability: the importance of environmental predictability, Proc R Soc B, vol.277, pp.3391-3400, 2010.

M. M. Lambrechts, J. Blondel, M. Maistre, and P. Perret, A single response mechanism is responsible for evolutionary adaptive variation in a birds laying date, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.94, pp.5153-5155, 1997.

B. D. Goldman, Mammalian photoperiodic system: formal properties and neuroendocrine mechanisms of photoperiodic time measurement, J Biol Rhythm, vol.16, pp.283-301, 2001.

A. Dawson, V. M. King, G. E. Bentley, and G. F. Ball, Photoperiodic control of seasonality in birds, J Biol Rhythm, vol.16, pp.365-380, 2001.

M. E. Visser, S. V. Schaper, L. Holleman, A. Dawson, and P. Sharp, Genetic variation in cue sensitivity involved in avian timing of reproduction, Funct Ecol, vol.25, pp.868-877, 2011.

S. P. Caro, S. V. Schaper, R. A. Hut, G. F. Ball, and M. E. Visser, The case of the missing mechanism: how does temperature influence seasonal timing in endotherms?, PLoS Biol, vol.11, p.1001517, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02390863

P. Gienapp, C. Teplitsky, J. S. Alho, J. A. Mills, and J. Merilä, Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic responses, Mol Ecol, vol.17, pp.167-178, 2008.

M. E. Visser, A. J. Van-noordwijk, J. M. Tinbergen, and C. M. Lessells, Warmer springs lead to mistimed reproduction in great tits (Parus major), Proc R Soc B, vol.265, pp.1867-1870, 1998.

E. Post and M. C. Forchhammer, Climate change reduces reproductive success of an Arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol.363, pp.2369-2375, 2008.

J. T. Kerby and E. Post, Advancing plant phenology and reduced herbivore production in a terrestrial system associated with sea ice decline, Nat Commun, vol.4, p.2514, 2013.

F. H. Bronson, Mammalian reproductive biology, 1989.

J. M. Gaillard, D. Delorme, J. M. Jullien, and D. Tatin, Timing and synchrony of birth in roe deer, J Mammal, vol.74, pp.738-744, 1993.

J. Linnell and R. Andersen, Timing and synchrony of birth in a hider species, the roe deer Capreolus capreolus, J Zool, vol.244, pp.497-504, 1998.

F. Plard, J. M. Gaillard, C. Bonenfant, A. Hewison, and D. Delorme, Parturition date for a given female is highly repeatable within five roe deer populations, Biol Lett, vol.9, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02282704

R. Aitken, Ultrastructure of blastocyst and endometrium of roe deer Capreolus capreolus during delayed implantation, J Anat, vol.119, pp.369-384, 1975.

W. Lu, Q. J. Meng, N. Tyler, K. A. Stokkan, and A. Loudon, A circadian clock is not required in an Arctic mammal, Curr Biol, vol.20, pp.533-537, 2010.

A. J. Sempéré, C. Blanvillain, R. Mauget, and P. Chemineau, Sheng eds. The role of the photoperiod in the sexual cycle in female roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), pp.364-371, 1993.

D. Réale, D. Berteaux, A. G. Mcadam, and S. Boutin, Lifetime selection on heritable life-history traits in a natural population of red squirrels, Evolution, vol.57, pp.2416-2423, 2003.

C. Feder, J. Martin, M. Festa-bianchet, C. Bérubé, and J. Jorgenson, Never too late? Consequences of late birthdate for mass and survival of bighorn lambs, Oecologia, vol.156, pp.773-781, 2008.

R. A. Fisher, The genetical theory of natural selection, 1930.

F. Plard, J. M. Gaillard, T. Coulson, A. Hewison, and D. Delorme, ) Long-lived and heavier females give birth earlier in roe deer, Ecography

S. Ellner and M. Rees, Integral projection models for species with complex demography, Am Nat, vol.167, pp.410-428, 2006.

T. Coulson, Integral projections models, their construction and use in posing hypotheses in ecology, Oikos, vol.121, pp.1337-1350, 2012.

J. M. Gaillard, R. Andersen, D. Delorme, and J. Linnell, Family effects on growth and survival of juvenile roe deer, Ecology, vol.79, pp.2878-2889, 1998.

A. Hewison, R. Andersen, J. M. Gaillard, J. Linnell, and D. Delorme, Contradictory findings in studies of sex ratio variation in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), Behav Ecol Sociobiol, vol.45, pp.339-348, 1999.

S. Tuljapurkar, An uncertain life: demography in random environments, Theor Popul Biol, vol.35, pp.227-294, 1989.

M. D. Schwartz, R. Ahas, and A. Aasa, Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere, Glob Chang Biol, vol.12, pp.343-351, 2006.

A. Ozgul, D. Z. Childs, M. K. Oli, K. B. Armitage, and D. T. Blumstein, Coupled dynamics of body mass and population growth in response to environmental change, Nature, vol.466, pp.482-485, 2010.

J. M. Gaillard, A. Hewison, F. Klein, F. Plard, and M. Douhard, How does climate change influence demographic processes of widespread species? Lessons from the comparative analysis of contrasted populations of roe deer, Ecol Lett, vol.16, pp.48-57, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02281561

S. Burthe, A. Butler, K. R. Searle, S. J. Hall, and S. J. Thackeray, Demographic consequences of increased winter births in a large aseasonally breeding mammal (Bos taurus) in response to climate change, J Anim Ecol, vol.80, pp.1134-1144, 2011.

T. E. Reed, S. Jenouvrier, and M. E. Visser, Phenological mismatch strongly affects individual fitness but not population demography in a woodland passerine, J Anim Ecol, vol.82, pp.131-144, 2012.

T. E. Reed, V. Grotan, S. Jenouvrier, B. E. Saether, and M. E. Visser, Population growth in a wild bird is buffered against phenological mismatch, Science, vol.340, pp.488-491, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00822808

D. W. Thomas, J. Blondel, P. Perret, M. M. Lambrechts, and J. R. Speakman, Energetic and fitness costs of mismatching resource supply and demand in seasonally breeding birds, Science, vol.291, pp.2598-2600, 2001.

J. Merilä, B. C. Sheldon, and L. Kruuk, Explaining stasis: microevolutionary studies in natural populations, Genetica, vol.112, pp.199-222, 2001.

M. Sandell, The evolution of seasonal delayed implantation, Q Rev Biol, vol.65, pp.23-42, 1990.

A. Charmantier, R. H. Mccleery, L. R. Cole, C. Perrins, and L. Kruuk, Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change in a wild bird population, Science, vol.320, pp.800-803, 2008.

M. N. Clements, T. H. Clutton-brock, S. D. Albon, J. M. Pemberton, and L. E. Kruuk, Gestation length variation in a wild ungulate, Funct Ecol, vol.25, pp.691-703, 2011.

R. Andersen, P. Duncan, and J. Linnell, The European Roe Deer: the biology of Success, 1998.

D. Delorme, J. M. Gaillard, and J. M. Jullien, Intérêt de l'étude de la période juvénile pour le suivi de l'évolution d'une population de chevreuils (Capreolus capreolus), Gibier Faune Sauvage, vol.5, pp.15-26, 1988.

J. M. Jullien, D. Delorme, and J. M. Gaillard, Détermination de l'âge chez le faon de chevreuil (Capreolus capreolus) dans son premier mois de vie, Mammalia, vol.56, pp.307-311, 1992.

N. Pettorelli, J. M. Gaillard, N. G. Yoccoz, P. Duncan, and D. Maillard, The response of fawn survival to changes in habitat quality varies according to cohort quality and spatial scale, J Anim Ecol, vol.74, pp.972-981, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00188630

J. D. Lebreton, K. P. Burnham, J. Clobert, and D. R. Anderson, Modeling survival and testing biological hypotheses using marked animals: a unified approach with case studies, Ecol Monogr, vol.62, pp.67-118, 1992.

R. Bonhomme, Bases and limits to using 'degree.day' units, Eur J Agron, vol.13, pp.1-10, 2000.

D. S. Falconer and T. Mackay, Introduction to quantitative genetics, 1996.