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Genomic variation in tomato, from wild ancestors to contemporary breeding accessions

Abstract : Domestication modifies the genomic variation of species. Quantifying this variation provides insights into the domestication process, facilitates the management of resources used by breeders and germplasm centers, and enables the design of experiments to associate traits with genes. We described and analyzed the genetic diversity of 1,008 tomato accessions including Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum (SLL), S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (SLC), and S. pimpinellifolium (SP) that were genotyped using 7,720 SNPs. Additionally, we explored the allelic frequency of six loci affecting fruit weight and shape to infer patterns of selection. Our results revealed a pattern of variation that strongly supported a two-step domestication process, occasional hybridization in the wild, and differentiation through human selection. These interpretations were consistent with the observed allele frequencie for the six loci affecting fruit weight and shape. Fruit weight was strongly selected in SLC in the Andean region of Ecuador and Northern Peru prior to the domestication of tomato in Mesoamerica. Alleles affecting fruit shape were differentially selected among SLL genetic subgroups. Our results also clarified the biological status of SLC. True SLC was phylogenetically positioned between SP and SLL and its fruit morphology was diverse. SLC and "cherry tomato" are not synonymous terms. The morphologically-based term "cherry tomato" included some SLC, contemporary varieties, as well as many admixtures between SP and SLL. Contemporary SLL showed a moderate increase in nucleotide diversity, when compared with vintage groups. This study presents a broad and detailed representation of the genomic variation in tomato. Tomato domestication seems to have followed a two step-process; a first domestication in South America and a second step in Mesoamerica. The distribution of fruit weight and shape alleles supports that domestication of SLC occurred in the Andean region. Our results also clarify the biological status of SLC as true phylogenetic group within tomato. We detect Ecuadorian and Peruvian accessions that may represent a pool of unexplored variation that could be of interest for crop improvement
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José Blanca, Javier Montero-Pau, Christopher Sauvage, Guillaume Bauchet, Eudald Illa, et al.. Genomic variation in tomato, from wild ancestors to contemporary breeding accessions. BMC Genomics, BioMed Central, 2015, 16, 19 p. ⟨10.1186/s12864-015-1444-1⟩. ⟨hal-02638064⟩

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