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Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists

Annegret Kohler 1 Alan Kuo 2 Laszlo G. Nagy 3, 4 Emmanuelle Morin 1 Kerrie W. Barry 2 Francois Buscot 5, 6 Björn Canbäck 7 Cindy Choi 2 Nicolas Cichocki 1 Alicia Clum 2 Jan Colpaert 8 Alex Copeland 2 Mauricio D. Costa 9 Jeanne Dore 10 Dimitrios Floudas 4 Gilles Gay 10 Mariangela Girlanda 11 Bernard Henrissat 12, 13 Sylvie Herrmann 5, 6 Jaqueline Hess 14 Nils Högberg 15 Tomas Johansson 7 Hassine-Radhouane Khouja 11 Kurt Labutti 2 Urs Lahrmann 16 Anthony Levasseur 12 Erika A. Lindquist 2 Anna Lipzen 2 Roland Marmeisse 10 Elena Martino 1, 11 Claude Murat 1 Chew Y. Ngan 2 Uwe Nehls 17 Jonathan M. Plett 1 Anne Pringle 18 Robin A. Ohm 2 Silvia Perotto 11 Martina Peter 19 Robert Riley 2 François Rineau 8 Joske Ruytinx 8 Asaf Salamov 2 Firoz Shah 7 Hui Sun 2 Mika Tarkka 5, 6 Andrew Tritt 2 Claire Veneault Fourrey 1 Alga Zuccaro 16, 20 . Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative Consortium Anders Tunlid 7 Igor V. Grigoriev 2 David S. Hibbett 4 Francis Martin 1
Abstract : To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose. Similar functional categories of nonorthologous genes are induced in symbiosis. Of induced genes, 7-38% are orphan genes, including genes that encode secreted effector-like proteins. Convergent evolution of the mycorrhizal habit in fungi occurred via the repeated evolution of a 'symbiosis toolkit', with reduced numbers of PCWDEs and lineage-specific suites of mycorrhiza-induced genes.
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Annegret Kohler, Alan Kuo, Laszlo G. Nagy, Emmanuelle Morin, Kerrie W. Barry, et al.. Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists. Nature Genetics, Nature Publishing Group, 2015, 47 (4), pp.410-U176. ⟨10.1038/ng.3223⟩. ⟨hal-02639336⟩

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