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Variétés et itinéraires techniques du blé : une évolution vers la diversification

Abstract : the twentieth century aiming at increasing crop production, new challenges have emerged. They consist in reducing the environmental impacts of crops, improving their quality and using more sparingly the inputs and fossil resources. Plant breeding has contributed to those postwar evolutions of agriculture. Therefore, selection has first led to a very significant increase of the varietal yield in the second half of the twentieth century. Then, face to a deterioration of the overall quality of the French harvest, including grain protein content, and face to new challenges of production (mentioned above), new criteria were taken into account in selection, such as disease resistance and quality with significant impacts on the characteristics of the registered varieties. However, these new features of varieties are not always used at the production level. In addition, studies for selecting varieties consuming less nitrogen are just beginning and we can expect significant progress in the coming years. Finally, over the past decade, some interesting varieties have emerged specifically adapted to the conditions of organic farming and able to make bread at low protein content. In order to optimize the efficiency of resource use, it is becoming increasingly necessary to better adapt the choice of varieties, and therefore their selection, to the diversity of production conditions. For this purpose, it is necessary to complete the characterization of varieties, especially their tolerance to limiting factors expected in cropping systems using less input. It entails to analyze the Genotype x Environment x Management practices interactions often important in the cultivar trials and to describe precisely the cropping environments by using measurements and crop models. Finally, as the agroecological systems using less input are expected to develop in the coming year, the varietal ideotypes adapted to those systems and the method to design them will be discussed.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 28, 2020 - 5:16:06 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:38:10 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-02641540, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 344986

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Arnaud Gauffreteau, Gilles Charmet, Marie-Helene Jeuffroy, Jacques Le Gouis, Jean Marc Meynard, et al.. Variétés et itinéraires techniques du blé : une évolution vers la diversification. Agronomie, Environnement & Sociétés, Association Française d'Agronomie (Afa), 2014, 4 (2 : Variétés et systèmes de culture : quelle co-évolution ? Quelles implications pour l’agronomie et la génétique ?). ⟨hal-02641540⟩

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