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Genetic structure and differentiation among grapevines (Vitis vinifera) accessions from Maghreb region

Abstract : Three gene pools representative of Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera (=subsp. sativa Beger) growing in the Maghreb regions (North Africa) from Tunisia (44), Algeria (31) and Morocco (18) and 16 wild grape accessions (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Beger) from Tunisia were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at twenty nuclear microsatellites markers distributed throughout the 19 grape chromosomes. 203 alleles with a mean number of 10.15 alleles per locus were observed in a total of 109 accessions. Genetic diversities were high in all populations with values ranging from 0.6775 (Moroccan cultivars) to 0.7254 (Tunisian cultivars). F (st) pairwise values between cultivated grapevine populations were low but found to be significantly different from zero. High F (st) pairwise values were shown between wild and cultivated compartments. Two parent offspring relationships, two synonyms and two clones of the same cultivar were detected. The rate of gene flow caused by vegetative dissemination of cultivated grapevine plants was not sufficient to genetically homogenise the pools of cultivars grown in different regions. The Neighbour Joining cluster analysis showed a clear separation according to geographical origins for the cultivated grapevines gene pools and revealed a high dissimilarity between cultivated and wild grapevine. However, three cultivars (Plant d'Ouchtata 1, Plant de Tabarka 3 and Plant d'Ouchtata 3) are very close to wild accessions and may result from a hybridisation between cultivated and wild accessions. The high level of differentiation between cultivated and wild accessions indicates that the cultivated accessions do not derive directly from local wild populations but could mostly correspond to imported materials introduced from others regions during historical times or derived from crossing between them
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L. Riahi, N. Zoghlami, K. El-Heit, Valerie Laucou, Loïc Le Cunff, et al.. Genetic structure and differentiation among grapevines (Vitis vinifera) accessions from Maghreb region. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Springer Verlag, 2010, 57 (2), pp.255-272. ⟨10.1007/s10722-009-9467-6⟩. ⟨hal-02658540⟩



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