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Application of gene expression studies in livestock production systems: a European perspective

Abstract : In the context of sustainable agriculture and animal husbandry, understanding animal physiology remains a major challenge in the breeding and production of livestock, especially to develop animal farming systems that respond to the new and diversified consumer demand. Physiological processes depend on the expression of many genes acting in concert. Considerable effort has been expended in recent years on examining the mechanisms controlling gene expression and their regulation by biological and external factors (e. g. genetic determinants, nutritional factors, and animal management). Two main strategies have been developed to identify important genes. The first one has focussed on the expression of candidate genes for key physiological pathways at the level of both the transcripts and proteins. An original strategy has emerged with the advent of genomics that addresses the same issues through the examination of the molecular signatures of all genes and proteins using high-throughput techniques (e. g. transcriptomics and proteomics). In this review, the application of the gene expression studies in livestock production systems is discussed. Some practical examples of genomics applied to livestock production systems (e. g. to optimise animal nutrition, meat quality or animal management) are presented, and their outcomes are considered. In the future, integration of the knowledge gained from these studies will finally result in optimising livestock production systems through detection of desirable animals and their integration into accurate breeding programs or innovative management systems.
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Submitted on : Saturday, May 30, 2020 - 2:29:41 PM
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Isabelle Cassar-Malek, Brigitte Picard, C. Bernard, Jean-François Hocquette. Application of gene expression studies in livestock production systems: a European perspective. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, CSIRO Publishing, 2008, 48 (6-7), pp.701-710. ⟨10.1071/EA08018⟩. ⟨hal-02659672⟩



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