U. Inra, . De-génétique, and . Végétale,

H. A. Orr, The genetics of species differences, Trends Ecol Evol, vol.16, pp.343-350, 2001.

N. H. Barton and P. D. Keightley, Understanding quantitative genetic variation, Nat rev Genet, vol.3, pp.11-21, 2002.

A. Eyre-walker and P. D. Keightley, The distribution of fitness effects of new mutations, Nat Rev Genet, vol.8, pp.610-618, 2007.

J. F. Crow and M. Kimura, Introduction to Population Genetics Theory Harper & Row Publishers, 1970.

R. Burger, Predictions of the dynamics of a polygenic character under directional selection, J Theor Biol, vol.162, pp.487-513, 1993.

R. Burger and R. Lande, On the distribution of the mean and variance of a quantitative trait under mutation-selection-drift balance, Genetics, vol.138, pp.901-913, 1994.

Y. Bello and D. Waxman, Near-periodic substitution and the genetic variance induced by environmental change, J Theor Biol, vol.239, pp.152-160, 2006.

M. Turelli and N. H. Barton, Genetic and statistical analyses of strong selection on polygenic traits: What, me normal?, Genetics, vol.138, pp.913-941, 1994.

J. H. Mcdonald and M. Kreitman, Adaptive protein evolution at the Adh locus in Drosophila, Nature, vol.351, pp.652-656, 1991.

. Eyre-walker, A: The genomic rate of adaptive evolution, Trends Ecol Evol, vol.21, pp.569-75, 2006.

A. Eyre-walker and P. D. Keightley, High genomic deleterious mutation rates in hominids, Nature, vol.397, pp.344-351, 1999.

. Durand, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.10, issue.2, 2010.

G. Piganeau and A. Eyre-walker, Estimating the distribution of fitness effects from DNA sequence data: implications for the molecular clock, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.100, pp.10335-10375, 2003.

R. Sanjuan, A. Moya, and S. F. Elena, The distribution of fitness effects caused by single-nucleotide substitutions in an RNA virus, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.101, pp.8396-401, 2004.

R. Kassen and T. Bataillon, Distribution of fitness effects among beneficial mutations before selection in experimental populations of bacteria, Nat Genet, vol.38, pp.484-492, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02663387

J. H. Gillespie, Molecular evolution of the mutational landscape, Evolution, vol.38, pp.1116-1129, 1984.

M. Lynch and W. G. Hill, Phenotypic evolution by neutral mutation, Evolution, vol.40, pp.915-935, 1986.

P. D. Keightley, Comparing analysis methods for mutation-accumulation data, Genetics, vol.167, pp.551-553, 2004.

T. Mukai, The genetic structure of natural populations of Drosophila M elanogaster. I. Spontaneous mutation rate of polygenes controlling viability, vol.50, pp.1-19, 1964.

T. Mukai, S. I. Chigusa, L. E. Mettler, and J. F. Crow, Mutation rate and dominance of genes affecting viability in Drosophila M elanogaster, Genetics, vol.72, pp.335-355, 1972.

O. Ohnishi, Spontaneous and ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations controlling viability in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Homozygous effect of polygenic mutations, Genetics, vol.87, pp.529-574, 1977.

P. D. Keightley and A. Caballero, Genomic mutation rates for lifetime reproductive output and lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.94, pp.3823-3830, 1997.

L. L. Vassilieva and M. Lynch, The rate of spontaneous mutation for life-history traits in Caenorhabditis elegans, Genetics, vol.151, pp.119-148, 1999.

L. L. Vassilieva, A. M. Hook, and M. Lynch, The fitness effects of spontaneous mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans, Evolution, vol.54, pp.1234-1280, 2000.

T. T. Kibota and M. Lynch, Estimate of the genomic mutation rate deleterious to overall fitness in E. coli, Nature, vol.381, pp.694-700, 1996.

R. G. Shaw, D. L. Byers, and E. Darmo, Spontaneous mutational effects on reproductive traits of Arabidopsis thaliana, Genetics, vol.155, pp.369-378, 2000.

F. H. Shaw, C. J. Geyer, and R. G. Shaw, A comprehensive model of mutations affecting fitness and inferences for Arabidopsis thaliana, Evolution, vol.56, pp.453-63, 2002.

T. Bataillon, Estimation of spontaneous genome-wide mutation rate parameters: whither beneficial mutations?, Heredity, vol.84, pp.497-501, 2000.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02698801

P. D. Keightley and M. Lynch, Toward a realistic model of mutations affecting fitness, Evolution, vol.57, pp.683-688, 2003.

R. G. Shaw, F. H. Shaw, and C. Geyer, What fraction of mutations reduces fitness? A reply to Keightley and Lynch, Evolution, vol.57, pp.686-689, 2003.

M. Imhof and C. Schlotterer, Fitness effects of advantageous mutations in evolving Escherichia coli populations, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.98, pp.1113-1120, 2001.

D. S. Falconer and T. Mackay, Introduction to Quantitative Genetics Benjamin Cummings, vol.4, 1996.

G. Clayton and A. Robertson, Mutation and quantitative variation, Am Nat, vol.89, pp.151-158, 1955.

W. G. Hill, Predictions of Response to Artificial Selection from New Mutations, Genet Res, vol.40, pp.255-278, 1982.

T. Mackay, R. F. Lyman, and F. Lawrence, Polygenic mutation in Drosophila melanogaster: Mapping spontaneous mutations affecting sensory bristle number, Genetics, vol.170, pp.1723-1758, 2005.

P. D. Keightley, Genetic basis of response to 50 generations of selection on body weight in inbred mice, Genetics, vol.148, pp.1931-1939, 1998.

R. Azevedo, P. D. Keightley, C. Lauren-maatta, L. L. Vassilieva, M. Lynch et al., Spontaneous mutational variation for body size in Caenorhabditis elegans, Genetics, vol.162, pp.755-765, 2002.

S. Goho and G. Bell, The ecology and genetics of fitness in Chlamydomonas. IX. The rate of accumulation of variation of fitness under selection, Evolution, vol.54, pp.416-440, 2000.

P. D. Keightley, Mutational variation and long term selection response, Plant Breed Rev, vol.24, pp.227-247, 2004.

J. Doebley, A. Stec, and L. Hubbard, The evolution of apical dominance in maize, Nature, vol.386, pp.485-493, 1997.

R. L. Wang, A. Stec, J. Hey, L. Lukens, and J. Doebley, The limits of selection during maize domestication, Nature, vol.398, pp.236-245, 1999.

N. Lauter and J. Doebley, Genetic variation for phenotypically invariant traits detected in teosinte: implications for the evolution of novel forms, Genetics, vol.160, pp.333-375, 2002.

H. Innan and Y. Kim, Pattern of polymorphism after strong artificial selection in a domestication event, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.101, pp.10667-72, 2004.

K. M. Teshima, G. Coop, and M. Przeworski, How reliable are empirical genomic scans for selective sweeps?, Genome Res, vol.16, pp.702-712, 2006.

E. E. Irish and T. M. Nelson, Identification of multiple stages in the conversion of maize meristems from vegetative to floral development, Development, vol.112, pp.9891-898, 1991.

F. Chardon, B. Virlon, L. Moreau, M. Falque, J. Joets et al., Genetic architecture of flowering time in maize as inferred from quantitative trait loci meta-analysis and synteny conservation with the rice genome, Genetics, vol.168, pp.2169-85, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02678548

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, vol.2, 2002.

R. Bernardo, A model for marker-assisted selection among single crosses with multiple genetic markers, Theor Appl Genet, vol.97, pp.473-478, 1998.

D. E. Watkins-chow and W. J. Pavan, Genomic copy number and expression variation within the C57BL/6J inbred mouse, Genome Research, vol.13, pp.60-66, 2008.

M. Falque, L. Decousset, D. Dervins, A. M. Jacob, J. Joets et al., Linkage mapping of 1454 new maize candidate gene Loci, Genetics, vol.170, pp.1957-66, 2005.

J. Colasanti, Z. Yuan, and V. Sundaresan, The indeterminate gene encodes a zinc finger protein and regulates a leaf-generated signal required for the transition to flowering in maize, Cell, vol.93, pp.593-603, 1998.

S. H. Vega, M. Sauer, J. Orkwiszewski, and R. S. Poethig, The early phase change gene in Maize, Plant Cell, vol.14, pp.133-147, 2002.

S. Salvi, R. Tuberosa, E. Chiapparino, M. Maccaferri, S. Veillet et al., Toward positional cloning of vgt 1, a QTL controlling the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in maize, Plant Mol Biol, vol.48, pp.601-613, 2002.

F. Chardon, D. Hourcade, V. Combes, and A. Charcosset, Mapping of a spontaneous mutation for early flowering time in maize highlights contrasting allelic series at two-linked QTL on chromosome 8, Theor Appl Genet, vol.112, pp.1-11, 2005.

S. Salvi, G. Sponza, M. Morgante, D. Tomes, X. Niu et al., Conserved noncoding genomic sequences associated with a flowering-time quantitative trait locus in maize, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.104, pp.11376-81, 2007.

J. M. Thornsberry, M. M. Goodman, J. Doebley, S. Kresovich, D. Nielsen et al., Dwarf 8 polymorphisms associate with variation in flowering time, Nat Genet, vol.28, pp.286-289, 2001.

L. Camus-kulandaivelu, J. B. Veyrieras, D. Madur, V. Combes, M. Fourmann et al., Maize adaptation to temperate climate: relationship between population structure and polymorphism in the Dwarf 8 gene, Genetics, vol.172, pp.2449-63, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02664567

F. Roux, P. Touzet, J. Jc, and V. L. Corre, How to be early flowering: an evolutionary perspective, Trends Plant Sci, vol.11, pp.375-381, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00091810

H. A. Orr, The population genetics of adaptation: The distribution of factors fixed during adaptive evolution, Evolution, vol.52, pp.935-949, 1998.

C. L. Burch and L. Chao, Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus phi6, Genetics, vol.151, pp.921-928, 1999.

M. C. Whitlock and S. P. Otto, The panda and the phage: compensatory mutations and the persistence of small populations, Trends Ecol Evol, vol.14, pp.295-296, 1999.

M. Lynch and B. Walsh, Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits Sinauer Associates, vol.1, 1998.

P. D. Keightley, Metabolic models of selection response, J Theor Biol, vol.182, pp.311-316, 1996.

R. Lenski and M. Travisano, Dynamics of adaptation and diversification -a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.91, issue.15, pp.6808-6814, 1994.

. Durand, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.10, issue.2, 2010.

O. K. Silander, O. Tenaillon, and L. Chao, Understanding the evolutionary fate of infinite populations: the dynamics of mutational effects, PLoS Biol, vol.5, p.94, 2007.

C. Rebourg, M. Chastanet, B. Gouesnard, C. Welcker, P. Dubreuil et al., Maize introduction into Europe: the history reviewed in the light of molecular data, Theor Appl Genet, vol.106, pp.895-903, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02678281

R. Ihaka and R. Gentleman, R: A language for data analysis and graphics, J Comput Graph Stat, vol.5, pp.299-314, 1996.

T. Mackay, J. D. Fry, R. F. Lyman, and S. V. Nuzhdin, Polygenic mutation in Drosophila M elanogaster Estimates from response to selection of inbred strains, Genetics, vol.136, pp.937-951, 1994.

A. Gallais, Theorie de Selection en Amelioration des Plantes Masson Paris, vol.1, 1990.

F. Hospital and C. Chevalet, Effects of population size and linkage on optimal selection intensity, Theor Appl Genet, vol.86, issue.6, pp.775-780, 1993.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02701718

M. Causse, S. Santoni, C. Damerval, M. A. Charcosset, A. Deatrick et al., A composite map of expressed sequences in maize, Genome, vol.39, pp.418-432, 1996.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02685489

K. Bomblies, R. L. Wang, B. A. Ambrose, R. J. Schmidt, R. B. Meeley et al., Duplicate FLORICAULA/LEAFY homologs zfl1 and zfl2 control inflorescence architecture and flower patterning in maize, Development, vol.130, pp.2385-2395, 2003.

. Durand, Standing variation and new mutations both contribute to a fast response to selection for flowering time in maize inbreds, BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.10, issue.2, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02662644