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Mechanisms of extraction of aroma compounds from foods, using absorbents. Effect of various parameters

Abstract : Due to their high adsorbing capacity, different solids (carbonaceous adsorbents, zeolites, and polymers) are used to extract and concentrate aroma compounds from foods. Adsorption mechanisms are described in two phases, a kinetic stage that involves the diffusion of the analytes within the adsorbent pores and a thermodynamic stage that can be described by adsorption isotherms. These two phases determine the extraction time and the capacity of the adsorbent for a given aroma compound. Several applications involving adsorbents or sorbents have been developed, including purge and trap, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and stir bar sorptive extractions (SBSE), headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE), which now are widely used for aroma extractions. Different extraction modes (in the headspace or by immersion in the sample) can be used to recover aroma compounds in foods. The same adsorption mechanisms take place in both cases. Various parameters affecting the extraction kinetics and the capacity of the adsorbent have to be optimized when developing an extraction method. They can be divided into three groups: physicochemical characteristics of the adsorbent, including its porosity and hydrophobia; physicochemical characteristics of the aroma compounds (among them, two parameters play an important role, the sample/adsorbent partition coefficient, which determines the affinity for the adsorbent and the volumetric mass, which influences the diffusion in the adsorbent pores); and the extrinsic parameters that depend on the sampling conditions such as pH, temperature, gas or solvent flows, time, and composition of the sample. Several models used to determine the diffusivity and partition coefficient of aroma between the food sample and the adsorbents have been developed. They are useful to understand the behavior of aroma compounds in regards to various adsorbents and in selecting the adsorbent material with the greatest affinity for the target aroma compounds. Quantitative studies based on adsorbent extraction of volatiles have been carried out. Nevertheless, competition between analytes and the saturation of these materials are limiting parameters. Thus, new strategies (SBSE, HSSE) are being developed to avoid these limiting aspects of adsorbents in order to use them in a quantitative way.
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Alice Nongonierma, Philippe Cayot, Jean-Luc Le Quéré, Mark Springett, Nathalie Cayot, et al.. Mechanisms of extraction of aroma compounds from foods, using absorbents. Effect of various parameters. Food Reviews International, Taylor & Francis, 2006, 22 (1), pp.51-94. ⟨10.1080/87559120500379951⟩. ⟨hal-02664217⟩



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