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, Cet article fait le point sur les résultats actuels obtenus dans le monde chez les bovins et les petits ruminants, les limites de la technique et les applications potentielles. L'efficacité globale du clonage (nombre de jeunes nés /nombre d'embryons reconstitués) reste encore faible (? à 7 %), mais elle progresse régulièrement. Elle est cependant limitée par l'existence de mortalités embryonnaires et de physiopathologies foetales importantes après transplantation des embryons clonés dans des femelles porteuses. Après leur naissance, les bovins clonés font l'objet d'un programme de recherches à l'INRA pour évaluer leur santé, leurs performances à l'âge adulte ainsi que les éventuels risques associés au clonage. Malgré l'existence de différentes barrières biologiques encore mal maîtrisées, plusieurs applications du clonage peuvent être envisagées dont la production d' animaux modèles de maladies, la contribution à la sélection bovine, la reproduction de génotypes rares, ou bien, l'association avec la transgénèse pour des utilisations à des fins biomédicales, Résumé Parmi les récentes biotechnologies de la reproduction chez les mammifères d'élevage, le clonage par transfert de noyaux somatiques constitue un pas en avant depuis la naissance de la brebis Dolly