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Elaboration du rendement et fertilisation azotée du blé d’hiver en Champagne crayeuse. II. - Types de réponse à la fumure azotée et application de la méthode du bilan prévisionnel

Abstract : In Champagne crayeuse of France, we tried to test the determination method of nitrogen fertilizer rates on winter wheat, based on a predictive nitrogen balance. During 3 years campaigns 120 experimental and survey plots were settled and controlled within agricultural plots. In a first approach, we note that the observed yields were often different from the objectives (fig. 1). However, using grain number per unit area as a criterion of nitrogen efficiency, allowed us to analyse the cases of bad prevision. 4 types of response curves to nitrogen are distinguished (tabl. 5 and fig. 3) : - Type α : The calculated rate allows to obtain the objective of grain number. - Type β The obtained grain number is limited lower than the objective. We assume the influence of a limiting factor at an early stage of growth : fungic diseases, potassium or water deficiencies (table 7). The error of the prevision consists in a bad choice of the objective, and the method is not gain-said. - Type γ : The grain number obtained with the calculated rate of fertilizer is lower than the objective while nitrogen is still a limiting factor. The bad soil structure observed on this plots is likely to have disturbed the absorption of the fertilizer (table 7). The « Method of prevision balance », which supposes an optimum absorption of the fertilizer nitrogen, is then caught at fault. - Type δ : The objective grain number is reached with a fertilizer rate lower than the calculated one. We conclude in favour of the validity of the tested method, which allowed to obtain, in 8 cases out of 10, when the yield objective was not over-estimated and the soil structure favourable, at least the previous yield at the previous fertilizer rate.
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Jean Marc Meynard, J. Boiffin, Jacques Caneill, Michel Sebillotte. Elaboration du rendement et fertilisation azotée du blé d’hiver en Champagne crayeuse. II. - Types de réponse à la fumure azotée et application de la méthode du bilan prévisionnel. Agronomie, EDP Sciences, 1981, 1 (9), pp.795-806. ⟨hal-02727770⟩

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