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"Taking advantage of aromas to optimise liking of low-salt foods". Communication orale filmée lors de la 9th edition of the Taste-Nutrition-Health Congress: "Consumer health and pleasure", les 3-4 avril à Dijon (France)


Description : Health issues have led worldwide health organizations to encourage the decrease of salt content in foods. However, decreasing the amount of salt without changing consumer liking is an important challenge for the food industry because low-salt food usually exhibits altered sensory characteristics. Among the numerous strategies currently investigated to maintain salty taste while reducing salt concentration, we propose using tasteless sodium-free odorants to compensate for saltiness reduction through multisensory- integration mechanisms. Indeed, the overall perception of food Flavor relies on the integration of simultaneous chemosensory perceptions including taste and odor. In a series of sensory experiments relying on water solutions, model food, or real food products, we have been able to demonstrate that salt-associated aromas (i.e., retronasally perceived odors of e.g., sardine, bacon or emmental cheese) can enhance salty taste (Lawrence et al., 2009, 2011) through the odor-induced saltiness enhancement (OISE) effect. Moreover, we have shown that the OISE depends on salt concentration, namely when salty taste intensity is too high, the OISE is no more efficient while it can compensate for at least a 25% reduction of salt concentration in water solutions at medium salty taste intensity (Nasri et al., 2011, 2013). We also assessed the advantage of combining the OISE with other strategies developed to maintain salty taste while decreasing salt content. First, using potassium chloride (KCl) as sodium chloride (NaCl) replacer, we observed a more pronounced OISE effect when the salty taste relied on KCl as compared to NaCl; the enhancement was even higher in a ternary odor-sour-salty solution, suggesting that the cross-modal odor-taste-taste interactions may be particularly efficient to compensate for salt reduction. Second, we combined heterogeneous distribution of taste and salt-associated aroma stimuli in hot-served low-salt snacks to evaluate, with a consumer panel, the salty taste enhancement and liking for these products. We observed the highest saltiness enhancement for the snacks with the largest contrast in salt distribution (Emorine et al., 2013). Moreover we have shown that adding a salt-associated aroma to this heterogeneous product increases the saltiness perception owing to OISE but also contributes to maintain the consumer liking for such product. When taken together, all these findings demonstrate that cross-modal odor-taste interactions can be an efficient strategy to compensate, at a sensory level, for the decrease in saltiness and acceptability of foods with reduced salt levels (> 35%). Such a strategy, especially in association with other compensating strategies, should help manufacturers to follow the recommendations of public health authorities while maintaining a good acceptability of food for consumers.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 5, 2020 - 12:36:10 PM
Last modification on : Friday, December 3, 2021 - 1:00:02 PM