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Obésité, dérégulation de la prise alimentaire et olfaction : quid de la poule et de l'oeuf ?

Abstract : Obesity is associated with chronic food intake disorders and binge eating episodes. Food intake relies on an interaction between homeostatic regulation of the energy balance and hedonic signals, of which olfaction is a major sensory determinant. The modulation on olfactory function in obese status remains a matter of debate. We further investigated the olfactory function in a rodent model relevant to the situation encountered in obese humans, where genetic susceptibility is juxtaposed on chronic eating disorders. Using several olfactory-driven tests, we compared the behaviors of obesity-prone Sprague-Dawley rats (OP) fed with a high-fat/high-sugar diet with those of obese-resistant ones fed with normal chow. In OP rats, we reported 1) decreased odor threshold, but 2) poor olfactory performances, associated with learning/memory deficits, 3) decreased influence of fasting, and 4) impaired insulin control on food seeking behavior. Associated with these behavioral modifications, we found a modulation of metabolism-related factors implicated in 1) electrical olfactory signal regulation (insulin receptor), 2) cellular dynamics (glucorticoids receptors, pro- and antiapoptotic factors), and 3) homeostasis of the olfactory mucosa and bulb (monocarboxylate and glucose transporters). Such impairments might participate to the perturbed daily food intake pattern that we observed in obese animals.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02797588
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Submitted on : Friday, June 5, 2020 - 2:55:53 PM
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  • HAL Id : hal-02797588, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 328989

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Christine Baly. Obésité, dérégulation de la prise alimentaire et olfaction : quid de la poule et de l'oeuf ?. 10. Journées d’Animation Scientifique AROMAGRI, Comportement Alimentaire et Sens Chimiques, Nov 2014, Nouzilly, France. ⟨hal-02797588⟩

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