, insectes et tolérant à un herbicide, pour l'importation et l'utilisation en alimentation humaine et animale de grains et de ses produits dérivés, au titre du règlement (CE) n° 1829/2003. Réponse à la saisine

H. Akiyama, K. Sakata, K. Kondo, A. Tanaka, M. S. Liu et al., Individual detection of genetically modified maize varieties in nonidentity-preserved maize samples, J Agric Food Chem, vol.56, pp.1977-1983, 2008.

T. R. Allnutt, M. Dwyer, J. Mcmillan, C. Henry, and S. Langrell, Sampling and modeling for the quantification of adventitious genetically modified presence in maize, J Agric Food Chem, vol.56, pp.3232-3237, 2008.

D. N. Alstad and D. A. Andow, Managing the evolution of insect resistance to transgenic plants, Science, vol.268, pp.1894-1896, 1995.

D. A. Andow, The risk of resistance evolution in insects to transgenic insecticidal crops, Collection of Biosafety Reviews, vol.4, pp.142-199, 2008.

. Anses, Avis de l'Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail relatif à la demande de renouvellement de l'autorisation de mise sur le marché, au titre du règlement (CE) n° 1829/2003 relatif aux denrées et aux aliments pour animaux génétiquement modifiés, du maïs génétiquement modifié TC1507, développé pour être résistant à certains lépidoptères et tolérant au glufosinate-ammonium, pour l'importation, la transformation ainsi que l'utilisation en alimentation humaine et animale de cet OGM (dossier n° EFSA-GMO-RX-001), 2015.

. Arvalis, Téosinte, une adventice qui demande une vigilance toute particulière, p.4, 2013.

B. M. Baltazar, L. Castro-espinoza, A. Espinoza-banda, . De-la-fuente, J. M. Martinez et al., Pollen-mediated gene flow in maize: Implications for isolation requirements and coexistence in Mexico, the center of origin of maize, PLoS One, vol.10, 2015.

B. M. Baltazar, J. D. Sanchez-gonzalez, L. De-la-cruz-larios, and J. B. Schoper, Pollination between maize and teosinte: an important determinant of gene flow in Mexico, Theor Appl Genet, vol.110, pp.519-526, 2005.

M. Bannert and P. Stamp, Cross-pollination of maize at long distance, Eur J Agron, vol.27, pp.44-51, 2007.

C. Benbrook, Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. --the first sixteen years, Environmental Sciences Europe, vol.24, p.24, 2012.

Y. Bertheau, OGM : de la traçabilité et de la coexistence des filières à l'aménagement du territoire, Territoire en mouvement, vol.12, pp.56-80, 2012.

Y. Bertheau and A. Kobilinsky, Detection of transgenes in GMOs, Viruses and virus diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae), 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02825832

S. Bonny, Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops, weeds, and herbicides: overview and impact, Environ Manage, pp.1-18, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01531596

A. Bravo, S. S. Gill, and M. Soberon, Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control, Toxicon, vol.49, pp.423-435, 2007.

Y. Brunet, S. Dupont, S. Delage, D. Garrigou, D. Guyon et al., Long-distance pollen flow in large fragmented landscapes, GM and non-GM supply chains: coexistence and traceability, Y. Bertheau, 2013.

Y. Carrière, N. Crickmore, and B. E. Tabashnik, Optimizing pyramided transgenic Bt crops for sustainable pest management, Nat Biotechnol, vol.33, pp.161-168, 2015.

P. S. Chahal and A. J. Jhala, Herbicide Programs for Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Volunteer Corn in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean, Weed Technol, vol.29, pp.431-443, 2015.

J. A. Chambers, A. Jelen, M. P. Gilbert, C. S. Jany, T. B. Johnson et al., , 1991.

E. H. Chowdhury, O. Mikami, H. Murata, P. Sultana, N. Shimada et al., Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11, J Food Prot, vol.67, pp.365-370, 2004.

M. Ciosi, N. J. Miller, K. S. Kim, R. Giordano, A. Estoup et al., Invasion of Europe by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: multiple transatlantic introductions with various reductions of genetic diversity, Mol Ecol, vol.17, pp.3614-3627, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02662996

T. L. Clark, D. L. Frank, B. W. French, L. J. Meinke, D. Moellenbeck et al., Mortality impact of MON863 transgenic maize roots on western corn rootworm larvae in the field, J Appl Entomol, vol.136, pp.721-729, 2012.

. Co-extra, Co-Extra, GM and non-GM supply chains: their CO-EXistence and TRAceability. FP6 integrated project. Final activity report -Publishable Executive Summary, p.77, 2009.

. Co-extra, Outcome of Co-Extra (GM and non GM supply chains: Their CO-EXistence and TRAceability) FP6 integrated project, p.8, 2009.

N. Consmüller, V. Beckmann, and M. Petrick, Towards GMO-free landscapes? Identifying driving factors for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany, Vortrag anlässlich der 51 Jahrestagung der GEWISOLA "Unternehmerische Landwirtschaft zwischen Marktanforderungen und gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen, 2011.

E. M. Cullen, M. E. Gray, A. J. Gassmann, and B. E. Hibbard, Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the US corn belt, Journal of Integrated Pest Management, vol.4, pp.1-6, 2013.

M. Czarnak-k?os and E. Rodriguez-cerezo, Best Practice Documents for coexistence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming. 1. Maize crop production, EUR 24509 EN In JRC scientific and technical reports European Coexistence Bureau EcoB, p.72, 2010.

M. De-fátima-quedas, C. De-carvalho, and P. , A quinquennium of coexistence in Portugal AgBioForum, vol.15, pp.1-9, 2012.

J. Deitloff, M. W. Dunbar, D. A. Ingber, B. E. Hibbard, and A. J. Gassmann, Effects of refuges on the evolution of resistance to transgenic corn by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Pest Manage Sci, vol.72, pp.190-198, 2016.

S. Delage, Y. Brunet, S. Dupont, P. Tulet, J. Pinty et al., , 2007.

, Atmospheric dispersal of maize pollen over the Aquitaine region, Third International Conference on coexistence between Genetically Modified (GM) and non-GM based agricultural supply chains

M. Delos and B. Huguet, Evolution du contexte de lutte contre Diabrotica virgifera virgifera en France et en Europe, AFPP -9ème Conférence Internationale sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, 2011.

R. A. Demaagd, M. S. Kwa, H. Vanderklei, T. Yamamoto, B. Schipper et al., Domain III substitution in Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(b) results in insect resistant genetically modified maize Bt11 for cultivation, The EFSA Journal, vol.9, issue.12, p.43, 1996.

. Efsa, Scientific opinion on guidance for risk assessment of food and feed from genetically modified plants, The EFSA Journal, vol.9, issue.5, p.2150, 2011.

. Efsa, Scientific Opinion on guidance on the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified plants, The EFSA Journal, vol.9, issue.8, p.40, 2011.

. Efsa, EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)cultivation, The EFSA Journal, vol.10, issue.11, p.36, 2012.

. Efsa, EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), 2012.

, Scientific Opinion updating the risk assessment conclusions and risk management recommendations on the genetically modified insect resistant maize 1507, The EFSA Journal, vol.10, issue.10, p.45

. Efsa, Scientific Opinion on an application from Pioneer Hi-Bred International and Dow AgroSciences LLC (EFSA-GMO-NL-2005-23) for placing on the market of genetically modified maize 59122 for food and feed uses, import, processing and cultivation under Regulation (EC) No1829, The EFSA Journal, vol.11, issue.3, p.103, 2003.

. Efsa, EFSA Journal, vol.11, issue.11, p.3443, 2013.

. Efsa, Scientific Opinion updating risk management recommendations to limit exposure of non-target Lepidoptera of conservation concern in protected habitats to Bt-maize pollen, EFSA Journal, vol.13, issue.7, p.31, 2015.

R. T. Ellis, B. A. Stockhoff, L. Stamp, H. E. Schnepf, G. E. Schwab et al., Novel Bacillus thuringiensis binary insecticidal crystal proteins active on western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.68, pp.1137-1145, 2002.

N. C. Ellstrand, L. C. Garner, S. Hegde, R. Guadagnuolo, and L. Blancas, Spontaneous hybridization between maize and teosinte, J Hered, vol.98, pp.183-187, 2007.

U. S. Epa, Terms and Conditions for Bt Corn Registrations. Office of Pesticide Programs, 2010.

U. S. Epa, Updated BPPD IRM review of reports of unexpected Cry3Bb1 damage, Monsanto's 2009 corn rootworm monitoring report, and revised corn rootworm resistance monitoring plan for MON 88017, vol.89034, pp.68467-68474, 2011.

, MRIDs 478846-01 and 478875-03

, implementing Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the list of approved active substances, Commission implementing Regulation, vol.540, pp.1-186, 2011.

, Commission regulation (EU), vol.619, 2011.

, amending Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011 as regards the conditions of approval of the active substance glufosinate, Commission implementing Regulation, vol.365, pp.27-29, 2013.

, on applications for authorisation of genetically modified food and feed in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Commission Regulations (EC) No 641, Commission Implementing Regulation, vol.157, pp.1-48, 1981.

, Commission recommendation 2014/63/EU of 6 February 2014 on measures to control Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte in Union areas where its presence is confirmed, Official Journal of the European Union, vol.38, pp.46-48, 2014.

J. R. Farias, D. A. Andow, R. J. Horikoshi, R. J. Sorgatto, P. Fresia et al.,

, Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil, Crop Protect, vol.64, pp.150-158

G. P. Farinos, M. De-la-poza, F. Ortego, and P. Castanera, Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin of field populations of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Mediterranean maize cultivation regions, J Econ Entomol, vol.105, pp.214-221, 2012.

A. J. Gassmann, Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: Predictions from the laboratory and effects in the field, J Invertebr Pathol, vol.110, pp.287-293, 2012.

A. J. Gassmann and W. D. Hutchison, Bt crops and insect pests: past successes, future challenges and opportunities, GM crops & food, vol.3, pp.139-139, 2012.

A. J. Gassmann, J. L. Petzold-maxwell, E. H. Clifton, M. W. Dunbar, A. M. Hoffmann et al., Field-evolved resistance by western corn rootworm to multiple Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic maize, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.111, pp.5141-5146, 2014.

A. J. Gassmann, J. L. Petzold-maxwell, R. S. Keweshan, and M. W. Dunbar, Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm, PLoS One, vol.6, 2011.

F. Gebhard and K. Smalla, Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 by transgenic sugar beet DNA, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.64, pp.1550-1554, 1998.

M. Gomez-barbero, J. Berbel, and E. Rodriguez-cerezo, Bt corn in Spain -the performance of the EU's first GM crop, Nat Biotech, vol.26, pp.384-386, 2008.

J. Gonzalez-cabrera, G. P. Farinos, S. Caccia, M. Diaz-mendoza, P. Castanera et al., Toxicity and mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins in the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.72, pp.2594-2600, 2006.

F. Granero, V. Ballester, and J. Ferre, Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins CRY1Ab and CRY1Fa share a high affinity binding site in Plutella xylostella (L.), Biochem Biophys Res Commun, vol.224, pp.779-783, 1996.

M. E. Gray, Additional reports of severe rootworm damage to Bt corn received: questions and answers, The Bulletin, vol.22, 2011.

M. E. Gray, Corn rootworm damage to Bt corn: should we expect more reports next year?, The Bulletin, vol.24, 2011.

M. E. Gray, Severe root damage to Bt corn observed in northwestern Illinois, The Bulletin, vol.20, 2011.

M. E. Gray, T. W. Sappington, N. J. Miller, J. Moeser, and M. O. Bohn, Adaptation and Invasiveness of Western Corn Rootworm: Intensifying Research on a Worsening Pest, In Annu Rev Entomol, pp.303-321, 2009.

S. Gruber, N. Colbach, A. Barbottin, and C. Pekrun, Post-harvest gene escape and approaches for minimizing it. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, vol.3, p.17, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01197781

N. Gryson and M. Eeckhout, Co-existence and traceability in supply chains: a case study on Belgian compound feed. In Genetically modified and non-genetically modified food supply chains: co-existence and traceability, pp.215-242, 2013.

N. Gryson, M. Eeckhout, A. Messéan, L. Soler, B. Lécroart et al., Empirical analysis of co-existence in commodity supply chains. In Genetically modified and non-genetically modified food supply chains: co-existence and traceability, pp.141-160, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01197983

P. Guertler, B. Lutz, R. Kuehn, H. H. Meyer, R. Einspanier et al., Fate of recombinant DNA and Cry1Ab protein after ingestion and dispersal of genetically modified maize in comparison to rapeseed by fallow deer (Dama dama), European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol.54, pp.36-43, 2008.

Y. Guo, Y. Feng, Y. Ge, G. Tetreau, X. Chen et al., The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods, PLoS One, vol.9, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01988286

M. E. Halsey, K. M. Remund, C. A. Davis, M. Qualls, P. J. Eppard et al., Isolation of maize from pollen-mediated gene flow by time and distance, Crop Sci, vol.45, pp.2172-2185, 2005.

S. M. Han, T. K. Oh, M. R. Uddin, Y. Shinogi, B. Lee et al., Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified maize in Korea: A 3-year observations, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, vol.60, pp.285-290, 2015.

C. Hawes, A. J. Haughton, J. L. Osborne, D. B. Roy, S. J. Clark et al., Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herb icidetolerant crops, Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B-Biol Sci, vol.358, pp.1899-1913, 2003.

. Hcb, Avis HCB-2010.06.01 du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies relatif à une demande d'autorisation de mise sur le marché du maïs génétiquement modifié 1507 pour la culture, l'importation, la transformation et l'utilisation en alimentation animale, 2010.

, Disponible sur, p.33

. Hcb, Avis HCB-2011.01.11-4 du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies sous forme de commentaires pour la Commission européenne sur le rapport de surveillance de la culture du maïs génétiquement modifié MON 810 dans l'Union européenne en, p.9, 2009.

. Hcb, Avis HCB-2011.10.21 du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies sous forme de commentaires pour la Commission européenne sur le rapport de surveillance de la culture du maïs génétiquement modifié MON 810 dans l'Union européenne en, p.16, 2010.

. Hcb, 17 du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies sur la coexistence : définition des conditions techniques relatives à la mise en culture, la récolte, le stockage et le transport des végétaux génétiquement modifiés visant à éviter la présence accidentelle d'OGM dans d'autres productions, p.46, 2012.

. Hcb, 19 du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies sous forme de commentaires sur le document d'orientation de l'EFSA relatif aux plans de surveillance environnementale post-commercialisation des plantes génétiquement modifiées, en vue de sa transcription en norme contraignante par la Commission européenne, p.22, 2012.

. Hcb, Avis HCB-2013.11.08 du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies sous forme de commentaires pour la Commission européenne sur le rapport de surveillance de la culture du maïs génétiquement modifié MON 810 dans l'Union européenne en 2012, p.21, 2013.

. Hcb, du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies relatif à une demande d'autorisation de mise sur le marché du maïs génétiquement modifié 59122 pour la culture, l'importation, la transformation et l'utilisation en alimentation animale (dossier EFSA-GMO-NL-2005-23), Disponible sur, p.39, 2015.

G. Head, M. Carroll, T. Clark, T. Galvan, R. M. Huckaba et al., Efficacy of SmartStax (R) insect-protected corn hybrids against corn rootworm: The value of pyramiding the Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1 proteins, Crop Protect, vol.57, pp.38-47, 2014.

M. S. Heard, S. J. Clark, P. Rothery, J. N. Perry, D. A. Bohan et al., Effects of successive seasons of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant maize cropping on weeds and invertebrates, Ann Appl Biol, vol.149, pp.249-254, 2006.

R. L. Hellmich, B. D. Siegfried, M. K. Sears, D. E. Stanley-horn, M. J. Daniels et al., Monarch larvae sensitivity to Bacillus thuringiensis-purified proteins and pollen, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.98, pp.11925-11930, 2001.

R. A. Herman, P. N. Scherer, D. L. Young, C. A. Mihaliak, T. Meade et al., Binary insecticidal crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, strain PS149B1: Effects of individual protein components and mixtures in laboratory bioassays, J Econ Entomol, vol.95, pp.635-639, 2002.

C. S. Hernandez and J. Ferre, Common receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, and Cry1Ja in Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea, and Spodoptera exigua, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.71, pp.5627-5629, 2005.

C. S. Hernandez-rodriguez, P. Hernandez-martinez, J. Van-rie, B. Escriche, and J. Ferre, , 2013.

, Shared midgut binding sites for Cry1A.105, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in two important corn pests, Ostrinia nubilalis and Spodoptera frugiperda, PLoS One, vol.8, issue.7, p.68164

B. E. Hibbard, T. L. Clark, M. R. Ellersieck, L. N. Meihls, A. A. Khishen et al., Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: Field survivorship has no significant impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604, J Econ Entomol, vol.103, pp.2187-2196, 2010.

B. E. Hibbard, D. L. Frank, R. Kurtz, E. Boudreau, M. R. Ellersieck et al., Mortality impact of Bt transgenic maize roots expressing eCry3.1Ab, mCry3A, and eCry3.1Ab plus mCry3A on western corn rootworm larvae in the field, J Econ Entomol, vol.104, pp.1584-1591, 2011.

A. J. Hitchon, J. L. Smith, B. W. French, and A. W. Schaafsma, Impact of the Bt corn proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, alone or pyramided, on western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in the field, J Econ Entomol, vol.108, 1986.

N. Höcherl, R. Siede, I. Illies, H. Gätschenberger, and J. Tautz, Evaluation of the nutritive value of maize for honey bees, J Insect Physiol, vol.58, pp.278-285, 2012.

F. Hofmann, M. Otto, and W. Wosniok, Maize pollen deposition in relation to distance from the nearest pollen source under common cultivation -results of 10 years of monitoring, Environmental Sciences Europe, vol.26, pp.1-14, 2001.

G. Hua, L. Masson, J. L. Jurat-fuentes, G. Schwab, and M. J. Adang, Binding analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry delta-endotoxins using brush border membrane vesicles of Ostrinia nubilalis, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.67, pp.872-879, 2001.

M. B. Hufford, P. Bilinski, T. Pyhaejaervi, and J. Ross-ibarra, Teosinte as a model system for population and ecological genomics, Trends Genet, vol.28, pp.606-615, 2012.

M. B. Hufford, P. Lubinksy, T. Pyhaejaervi, M. T. Devengenzo, N. C. Ellstrand et al., The genomic signature of crop-wild introgression in maize, PLoS Genet, vol.9, 2013.

J. C. Jennings, D. C. Kolwyck, S. B. Kays, A. J. Whetsell, J. B. Surber et al., Determining whether transgenic and endogenous plant DNA and transgenic protein are detectable in muscle from swine fed Roundup Ready soybean meal, J Anim Sci, vol.81, pp.1447-1455, 2003.

J. K. Kang, C. H. Krupke, A. F. Murphy, J. L. Spencer, M. E. Gray et al., , 2014.

, Modeling a western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera ( Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), maturation delay and resistance evolution in Bt corn, Pest Manage Sci, vol.70, pp.996-1007

S. Kawashima, H. Nozaki, T. Hamazaki, S. Sakata, T. Hama et al., Environmental effects on long-range outcrossing rates in maize, Agric Ecosyst Environ, vol.142, pp.410-418, 2011.

E. Kay, T. M. Vogel, F. Bertolla, R. Nalin, and P. Simonet, In situ transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from transgenic (transplastomic) tobacco plants to bacteria, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.68, pp.3345-3351, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02399924

I. Keller, P. Fluri, and A. Imdorf, Pollen nutrition and colony development in honey bees: part I, Bee World, vol.86, pp.3-10, 2005.

R. S. Keweshan, G. P. Head, and A. J. Gassmann, Effects of pyramided Bt corn and blended refuges on western corn rootworm and northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), J Econ Entomol, vol.108, pp.720-729, 2015.

A. Kobilinsky and Y. Bertheau, Minimum cost acceptance sampling plans for grain control, with application to GMO detection, Chemometrics Intellig Lab Syst, vol.75, pp.189-200, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02682384

S. P. Kos, T. J. De-jong, and W. L. Tamis, Can transgenic crops go wild? A literature study on using plant traits for weediness pre-screening, COGEM Research Report, pp.2012-2013, 2011.

J. L. Laffont, K. M. Remund, D. Wright, R. D. Simpson, and S. Gregoire, Testing for adventitious presence of transgenic material in conventional seed or grain lots using quantitative laboratory methods: statistical procedures and their implementation, Seed Science Research, vol.15, pp.197-204, 2005.

S. A. Lefko, T. M. Nowatzki, S. D. Thompson, R. R. Binning, M. A. Pascual et al., Characterizing laboratory colonies of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) selected for survival on maize containing event DAS-59122-7, J Appl Entomol, vol.132, pp.189-204, 2008.

J. Leipner, Chilling stress in maize: from physiology to genetics and molecular mechanisms. A Habilitation Thesis in Crop Science, Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, p.122, 2009.

H. Li, M. Olson, G. Lin, T. Hey, S. Y. Tan et al., Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 Interactions with Western Corn Rootworm Midgut Membrane Binding Sites, PLoS One, vol.8, 2013.

Y. Lu, K. Wu, Y. Jiang, B. Xia, P. Li et al., Mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops correlated with wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China, Science, vol.328, pp.1151-1154, 2010.

S. Luna, J. Figueroa, B. Baltazar, R. Gomez, R. Townsend et al., Maize pollen longevity and distance isolation requirements for effective pollen control, Crop Sci, vol.41, pp.1551-1557, 2001.

B. L. Ma, K. D. Subedi, R. , and L. M. , Extent of cross-fertilization in maize by pollen from neighboring transgenic hybrids, Crop Sci, vol.44, pp.1273-1282, 2004.

R. Macarthur, M. Feinberg, and Y. Bertheau, Construction of measurement uncertainty profiles for quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms based on interlaboratory validation data, J AOAC Int, vol.93, pp.1046-1056, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02661532

J. C. Malausa and D. C. Marival, Etude de la dynamique des populations des chenilles de Spodoptera frugiperda Abbot & Smith et d'Heliothis zea Boddie (Lepidoptera noctuidae) sur deux variétés de maïs en Guadeloupe (Antilles françaises), Agronomie, vol.1, pp.701-706, 1981.

C. Mallory-smith and M. Zapiola, Gene flow from glyphosate-resistant crops, Pest Manage Sci, vol.64, pp.428-440, 2008.

A. M. Mannion, M. , and S. , Biotechnology in agriculture: Agronomic and environmental considerations and reflections based on 15 years of GM crops, Progress in Physical Geography, vol.36, pp.747-763, 2012.

J. Mano, Y. Yanaka, Y. Ikezu, M. Onishi, S. Futo et al., Practicable group testing method to evaluate weight/weight GMO content in maize grains, J Agric Food Chem, vol.59, pp.6856-6863, 2011.

C. E. Mason and K. T. Tracewski, Diurnal foraging activity for corn pollen by honey bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Environ Entomol, vol.11, pp.187-188, 1982.

L. Masson, G. Schwab, A. Mazza, R. Brousseau, L. Potvin et al., A novel Bacillus thuringiensis (PS149B1) containing a Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 binary toxin specific for the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte forms ion channels in lipid membranes, Biochemistry (Mosc), vol.43, pp.12349-12357, 2004.

Y. Matsuoka, Y. Vigouroux, M. M. Goodman, G. J. Sanchez, E. Buckler et al., A single domestication for maize shown by multilocus microsatellite genotyping, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.99, pp.6080-6084, 2002.

L. N. Meihls, M. L. Higdon, M. Ellersieck, and B. E. Hibbard, Selection for resistance to mCry3A-expressing transgenic corn in western corn rootworm, J Econ Entomol, vol.104, pp.1045-1054, 2011.

L. N. Meihls, M. L. Higdon, M. R. Ellersieck, B. E. Tabashnik, and B. E. Hibbard, , 2012.

L. N. Meihls, M. L. Higdon, B. D. Siegfried, N. J. Miller, T. W. Sappington et al., Increased survival of western corn rootworm on transgenic corn within three generations of on-plant greenhouse selection, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.105, pp.19177-19182, 2008.

M. Meissle, J. Romeis, and F. Bigler, Bt maize and integrated pest management -a European perspective, Pest Manage Sci, vol.67, pp.1049-1058, 2011.

N. Miller, A. Estoup, S. Toepfer, D. Bourguet, L. Lapchin et al., Multiple transatlantic introductions of the western corn rootworm, Science, vol.310, p.992, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02682039

D. J. Moellenbeck, M. L. Peters, J. W. Bing, J. R. Rouse, L. S. Higgins et al., Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms, Nat Biotechnol, vol.19, pp.668-672, 2001.

D. Morisset, T. Demsar, K. Gruden, J. Vojvoda, D. Stebih et al., Detection of genetically modified organisms-closing the gaps, Nat Biotechnol, vol.27, pp.700-701, 2009.

A. Nemeth, A. Wurz, L. Artim, S. Charlton, G. Dana et al., Sensitive PCR analysis of animal tissue samples for fragments of endogenous and transgenic plant DNA, J Agric Food Chem, vol.52, pp.6129-6135, 2004.

T. Netherwood, S. M. Martin-orue, A. G. O'donnell, S. Gockling, J. Graham et al., Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract, Nat Biotechnol, vol.22, pp.204-209, 2004.

L. Nicolas, C. Nielsenleroux, J. F. Charles, and A. Delecluse, Respective role of the 42-and 51-kDa components of the Bacillus sphaericus toxin overexpressed in Bacillus thuringiensis, FEMS Microbiol Lett, vol.106, pp.275-280, 1993.

. Oecd, Consensus document on compositional considerations for new varieties of maize (Zea mays): Key food and feed nutrients, anti nutrients and secondary plant metabolites, 2002.

E. Mono, In Series on Harmonization of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology, issue.6, p.25, 2002.

R. Onori, J. ?u?tar-vozli?, G. Bellocchi, G. Berben, A. Blejec et al., GMO sampling strategies in food and feed chains. In Genetically modified and non-genetically modified food supply chains: co-existence and traceability, pp.245-272, 2013.

D. W. Onstad and L. J. Meinke, Modeling evolution of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to transgenic corn with two insecticidal traits, J Econ Entomol, vol.103, pp.849-860, 2010.

K. J. Oswald, B. W. French, C. Nielson, and M. Bagley, Selection for Cry3Bb1 resistance in a genetically diverse population of nondiapausing western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), J Econ Entomol, vol.104, pp.1038-1044, 2011.

K. J. Oswald, B. W. French, C. Nielson, and M. Bagley, Assessment of fitness costs in Cry3Bb1-resistant and susceptible western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) laboratory colonies, J Appl Entomol, vol.136, pp.730-740, 2012.

M. Palaudelmas, E. Mele, A. Monfort, J. Serra, J. Salvia et al., Assessment of the influence of field size on maize gene flow using SSR analysis, Transgenic Res, vol.21, pp.471-483, 2012.

M. Palaudelmas, G. Penas, E. Mele, J. Serra, J. Salvia et al., Effect of volunteers on maize gene flow, Transgenic Res, vol.18, pp.583-594, 2009.

G. Pardo, A. Cirujeda, E. Betrán, S. Fernández-cavada, S. Fuertes et al., El Teosinte (Zea mays, spp, Informaciones Técnicas GIoberno del Aragone, p.6, 2014.

G. Pardo, S. Fuertes, S. Fernández-cavada, E. Betrán, A. Cirujeda et al., Presencia de teosinte (Zea spp.) como mala hierba en los regadíos del valle del Ebro, XV Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología: La Malherbología y la transferencia tecnológica, pp.417-423, 2015.

K. W. Park, B. Lee, C. G. Kim, D. Y. Kim, J. Y. Park et al., Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified maize at a grain receiving port and along transportation routes in the Republic of Korea, Food Control, vol.21, pp.456-461, 2010.

Y. Pauchet, F. Luton, C. Castella, J. F. Charles, G. Romey et al., Effects of a mosquitocidal toxin on a mammalian epithelial cell line expressing its target receptor, Cell Microbiol, vol.7, pp.1335-1344, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00091135

L. Paul, F. Angevin, C. Collonnier, and A. Messean, Impact of gene stacking on gene flow: the case of maize, Transgenic Res, vol.21, pp.243-256, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01000737

E. J. Pereira, B. A. Lang, N. P. Storer, and B. D. Siegfried, Selection for Cry1F resistance in the European corn borer and cross-resistance to other Cry toxins, Entomol Exp Appl, vol.126, pp.115-121, 2008.

E. J. Pereira, H. A. Siqueira, M. Zhuang, N. P. Storer, and B. D. Siegfried, Measurements of Cry1F binding and activity of luminal gut proteases in susceptible and Cry1F resistant Ostrinia nubilalis larvae (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), J Invertebr Pathol, vol.103, pp.1-7, 2010.

E. J. Pereira, N. P. Storer, and B. D. Siegfried, Inheritance of Cry1F resistance in laboratory-selected European corn borer and its survival on transgenic corn expressing the Cry1F toxin, Bull Entomol Res, vol.98, pp.621-629, 2008.

E. J. Pereira, N. P. Storer, and B. D. Siegfried, Fitness costs of Cry1F resistance in laboratory-selected European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), J Appl Entomol, vol.135, pp.17-24, 2011.

C. Perez, L. E. Fernandez, J. G. Sun, J. L. Folch, S. S. Gill et al., , 2005.

, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis Cyt1Aa synergizes Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.102, pp.18303-18308

J. L. Petzold-maxwell, X. Cibils-stewart, B. W. French, and A. J. Gassmann, Adaptation by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bt maize: Inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference, J Econ Entomol, vol.105, pp.1407-1418, 2012.

J. L. Petzold-maxwell, B. D. Siegfried, R. L. Hellmich, C. A. Abel, B. S. Coates et al., Effect of maize lines on larval fitness costs of Cry1F resistance in the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), J Econ Entomol, vol.107, pp.764-772, 2014.

. Pioneer-dowagrosciences, Annual report on the implementation and the results of the monitoring activities regarding commercialization of maize 1507x59122 in the European Union in 2013-2014, 2014.

M. Pla, L. Paz, J. L. Penas, G. Garcia, N. Palaudelmas et al., Assessment of real-time PCR based methods for quantification of pollen-mediated gene flow from GM to conventional maize in a field study, Transgenic Res, vol.15, pp.219-228, 2006.

A. Pontiroli, A. Rizzi, P. Simonet, D. Daffonchio, T. M. Vogel et al., , 2009.

P. L. Prasifka, D. M. Rule, N. P. Storer, S. P. Nolting, and W. H. Hendrix, Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1 against the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), J Econ Entomol, vol.106, pp.823-829, 2013.

A. Raybould, L. S. Higgins, M. J. Horak, R. J. Layton, N. P. Storer et al., Assessing the ecological risks from the persistence and spread of feral populations of insect-resistant transgenic maize, Transgenic Res, vol.21, pp.655-664, 2012.

G. S. Raynor, E. C. Ogden, and J. V. Hayes, Dispersion and deposition of corn pollen from experimental sources, Agron J, vol.64, p.420, 1972.

K. M. Remund, D. A. Dixon, D. L. Wright, and L. R. Holden, Statistical considerations in seed purity testing for transgenic traits, Seed Science Research, vol.11, pp.101-119, 2001.

A. Rizzi, A. Pontiroli, L. Brusetti, S. Borin, C. Sorlini et al., Strategy for in situ detection of natural transformation-based horizontal gene transfer events, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.74, pp.1250-1254, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00312918

J. Romeis, M. Meissle, F. Alvarez-alfageme, F. Bigler, D. A. Bohan et al., Potential use of an arthropod database to support the nontarget risk assessment and monitoring of transgenic plants, Transgenic Res, vol.23, pp.995-1013, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02640836

J. Ross-ibarra, M. Tenaillon, and B. S. Gaut, Historical divergence and gene flow in the genus Zea, Genetics, vol.181, pp.1399-1413, 2009.

M. L. Rudeen and A. J. Gassmann, Effects of Cry34/35Ab1 corn on the survival and development of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Pest Manage Sci, vol.69, pp.709-716, 2012.

E. Schnepf, N. Crickmore, J. Van-rie, D. Lereclus, J. Baum et al., Bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins, Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, vol.62, pp.775-806, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02696151

H. E. Schnepf, S. Lee, J. Dojillo, P. Burmeister, K. Fencil et al., Characterization of Cry34/Cry35 binary insecticidal proteins from diverse Bacillus thuringiensis strain collections, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.71, pp.1765-1774, 2005.

J. L. Schwartz, L. Potvin, F. Coux, J. F. Charles, C. Berry et al., Permeabilization of model lipid membranes by Bacillus sphaericus mosquitocidal binary toxin and its individual components, J Membr Biol, vol.184, pp.171-183, 2001.

R. Sharma, D. Damgaard, T. W. Alexander, M. E. Dugan, J. L. Aalhus et al., Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal, J Agric Food Chem, vol.54, pp.1699-1709, 2006.

B. D. Siegfried and R. L. Hellmich, Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States, GM crops & food, vol.3, pp.184-193, 2012.

A. K. Singh and S. K. Dubey, Current trends in Bt crops and their fate on associated microbial community dynamics: a review, Protoplasma, pp.1-19, 2015.

T. Skevas, P. Fevereiro, and J. Wesseler, Coexistence regulations and agriculture production: A case study of five Bt maize producers in Portugal, Ecol Econ, vol.69, pp.2402-2408, 2008.

T. Skevas, J. Wesseler, and P. Fevereiro, Coping with ex-ante regulations for planting Bt maize: the Portuguese experience, AgBioForum, vol.12, pp.60-69, 2009.

N. Soltani, C. Shropshire, and P. H. Sikkema, Volunteer glyphosate and glufosinate resistant corn competitiveness and control in glyphosate and glufosinate resistant corn, Agricultural Sciences, vol.5, pp.402-409, 2014.

N. P. Storer, A spatially explicit model simulating western corn rootworm (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) adaptation to insect-resistant maize, J Econ Entomol, vol.96, pp.1530-1547, 2003.

N. P. Storer, J. M. Babcock, and J. M. Edwards, Field measures of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) mortality caused by Cry34/35Ab1 proteins expressed in maize event 59122 and implications for trait durability, J Econ Entomol, vol.99, pp.1381-1387, 2006.

J. Sweet and D. Bartsch, Synthesis and overview studies to evaluate existing research and knowledge on biological issues on GM plants of relevance to Swiss environments. (vdf Hochschulverlag AG an der ETH Zürich, 2012.

B. E. Tabashnik, A. J. Gassmann, D. W. Crowder, and Y. Carriere, Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory, Nat Biotechnol, vol.26, pp.199-202, 2008.

B. E. Tabashnik and F. Gould, Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn, J Econ Entomol, vol.105, pp.767-776, 2012.

B. E. Tabashnik, J. B. Van-rensburg, C. , and Y. , Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data, J Econ Entomol, vol.102, pp.2011-2025, 2009.

S. D. Thompson, Characterization of inheritance of resistance to maize containing event DAS-59122-7 in laboratory selected colonies of western corn rootworm using the sub-lethal seedling assay. Graduate Theses and Dissertations, 2014.

S. Toepfer, P. Knuth, M. Glas, and U. Kuhlmann, Successful application of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of western corn rootworm larvae in Europe -a mini review, Tagungsband: Internationale Fachtagung Zum Forschungsprogramm Uber Den Westlichen Maiswurzelbohrer, pp.59-66, 2014.

C. C. Van-de-wiel, R. M. Groeneveld, O. Dolstra, E. J. Kok, I. M. Scholtens et al., Pollen-mediated gene flow in maize tested for coexistence of GM and non-GM crops in the Netherlands: effect of isolation distances between fields, Njas-Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, vol.56, pp.405-423, 2009.

C. C. Van-de-wiel, L. Van-den-brink, C. B. Bus, M. M. Riemens, L. A. Lotz et al., Crop volunteers and climate change: Effects of future climate change on the occurrence of maize, sugar beet and potato volunteers in the Netherlands, p.52, 2011.

K. Van-frankenhuyzen, Insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins, J Invertebr Pathol, vol.101, pp.1-16, 2009.

A. Vogler, H. Eisenbeiss, I. Aulinger-leipner, and P. Stamp, Impact of topography on cross-pollination in maize (Zea mays L.), Eur J Agron, vol.31, pp.99-102, 2009.

D. S. Wangila, A. J. Gassmann, J. L. Petzold-maxwell, B. W. French, and L. J. Meinke, Susceptibility of Nebraska western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations to Bt corn events, J Econ Entomol, vol.108, pp.742-751, 2015.

M. L. Warburton, G. Wilkes, S. Taba, A. Charcosset, C. Mir et al., Gene flow among different teosinte taxa and into the domesticated maize gene pool, Genet Resour Crop Evol, vol.58, pp.1243-1261, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02650119

S. Wiedemann, B. Lutz, C. Albrecht, R. Kuehn, B. Killermann et al., Fate of genetically modified maize and conventional rapeseed, and endozoochory in wild boar (Sus scrofa), Mammalian Biology, vol.74, pp.193-199, 2009.

G. Winter and S. Stoppe-ramadan, European Union and German law on coexistence of agriculture with and without genetically modified crops: Individualisation of a systemic problem, Environmental Sciences Europe, vol.23, 2011.

, Cet avis a été élaboré par le CS du HCB à partir de la discussion de rapports d'expertise et d'un projet d'avis en séance du 26 novembre 2015 46 ainsi que des vérifications et compléments ultérieurs par voie électronique sous la présidence du Dr Jean-Christophe Pagès et la vice

C. S. Le and . Du, HCB est un comité pluridisciplinaire composé de personnalités scientifiques nommées par décret au titre de leur spécialité en relation avec les missions du HCB

C. Bagnis, A. Bar-hen, M. Barny, F. Bellivier, P. Berny et al.,

, Susceptible de participer à l'élaboration du futur avis de l'EFSA en tant que membre du panel OGM de l'EFSA, Philippe Guerche n'a contribué ni à l'analyse de ce dossier, ni à l'élaboration de cet avis, Les membres du CS du HCB remplissent annuellement une déclaration publique d'intérêts

P. Boireau, T. Brévault, B. Chauvel, E. Dassa, H. D. Verneuil et al., Membres du CS présents et représentés lors de la discussion du projet d'avis en séance du 26 novembre 2015 : Marie-Anne Barny, Yves Bertheau, 2016.

, Composition du CS en vigueur suite au décret de nomination des membres du HCB du 30 décembre, 2014.