A. Anas, R. Arnott, and K. A. Small, Urban Spatial Structure, Journal of Economic Literature, vol.36, pp.1426-1264, 1998.

S. A. Bento, D. Franco, and . Kaffineb, The efficiency and distributional impacts of alternative anti-sprawl policies, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.59, pp.121-141, 2006.

D. Brownstone and T. Golob, The impact of residential density on vehicule usage and energy consumption, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.65, pp.91-98, 2009.

M. Burchfield, H. G. Overman, G. Puga, and M. A. Turner, Causes of sprawl: a portrait from space, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.121, pp.587-633, 2006.

J. Cavailhès, D. Peeters, E. Sekeris, E. , and J. F. Thisse, The Periurbain City. Why to Live between the Suburbs and the Countryside?, Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol.34, pp.681-703, 2004.

J. Cavailhès, C. Gaigné, T. Tabuchi, and J. F. Thisse, Trade and the structure of cities, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.62, issue.3, pp.383-404, 2007.

R. Cervero and K. L. Wu, Commuting and Residential Location in the San Francisco Bay Area, Environment and Planning A, vol.29, pp.865-86, 1997.

C. Clark, Urban population densities, Journal Royal Statistical Society : Series A, vol.114, issue.4, pp.490-96, 1951.

, Urban sprawl in Europe, The ignored challenge. EEA Report, vol.10, 2006.

, Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe, European Environment Agency, issue.5, 2007.

C. Gaigné, S. Riou, and J. F. Thisse, Are conpact cities environmentally friendly? Journal of Urban Economics, forthcoming

G. Galster, R. Hanson, M. R. Ratcliffe, H. Wolman, S. Coleman et al., Wrestling Sprawl to the Ground: Defining and Measuring an Elusive Concept Housing Policy Debate, vol.12, pp.681-717, 2001.

G. Giuliano and A. Small, Subcenters in the Los Angeles Region, Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol.21, pp.163-82, 1991.

E. L. Glaeser and M. E. Kahn, Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, pp.2481-527, 2004.

E. L. Glaeser and M. E. Kahn, The greenness of cities : carbon dioxide emissions and urban development, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.67, issue.3, pp.404-418, 2010.

J. E. Hasse and R. G. Lathrop, Land resource impact indicators of urban sprawl Applied Geography 23, pp.159-175, 2003.

V. Henderson and A. Mitra, New urban landscape: developers and edge cities, Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol.26, pp.613-656, 1996.

M. E. Kahn, Green cities : urban growth and the environment, 2006.

C. Brutel, Un maillage du territoire français, 2011.

E. L. Glaeser, Cities, Agglomeration, and Spatial Equilibrium. The Lindahl lectures, 2008.

M. Hilal, ODOMATRIX. Calcul de distances routières intercommunales, Cahier des Techniques de l'INRA,(Numéro spécial : Méthodes et outils de traitement des données en sciences sociales, pp.41-63, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02666703

S. Lartigue and T. Petit, Dispersion ou polarisation de l'emploi dans la grande couronne d'Ilede-France, 1979.

K. A. Lohse, D. A. Newburn, J. J. Opperman, and A. M. Merenlender, Forecasting relative impacts of land use on anadromous fish habitat to guide conservation planning, Ecological Applications, vol.18, pp.467-82, 2008.

A. M. Merenlender, S. E. Reed, and K. L. Heise, Exurban development influences woodland bird composition, Landscape and urban planning, vol.92, pp.255-63, 2009.

D. P. Mcmillen and J. F. Mcdonald, Population Density in Suburban Chicago: A Bid-Rent Approach, Urban Studies, vol.35, pp.1119-1149, 1998.

J. Mincer, Changes in Wage Inequality, Research in Labor Economics, vol.16, pp.1-18, 1997.

P. L. Mokhatarian, Telecommunications and Travel. The case for Complementarity, Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol.6, pp.43-57, 2003.

M. E. Porter, Competitive advantage of the inner city, Harvard Business Review, 1995.

T. Schwanen, F. M. Dieleman, and M. Dijst, The impact of metropolitan structure on commute behavior in the Netherlands -a multilevel approach, 2002.

P. Courtney, D. Lépicier, and B. Schmitt, Spatial patterns of production linkages in the context of Europe's small towns: How are rural firms linked to the local economy?, Regional Studies, vol.42, issue.3, pp.355-374, 2008.

Y. Song and G. J. Knaap, Measuring Urban Form: Is Portland Winning the War on Sprawl, Journal of the American Planning Association, vol.70, pp.210-225, 2004.

D. Timothy and W. C. Wheaton, Intra-Urban Wage Variation, Employment Location and Commuting Times, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.50, pp.338-66, 2001.

H. Wolman, G. Galster, R. Hanson, M. Ratcliffe, K. Furdell et al., The Fundamental Challenge in Measuring Sprawl: Which Land Should Be Considered?, The Professional Geographer, vol.57, pp.94-105, 2005.

J. J. Wu, Environmental amenities, urban sprawl, and community characteristics, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol.52, pp.527-547, 2006.