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A. Haseli and F. Weibel, Disease control in organic cherry production with new products and early plastic cover of the trees, 11th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in Organic Fruit-Growing. Proceedings of the conference, pp.122-130, 2002.

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R. J. Mclaughlin, C. L. Wilson, S. Droby, R. Ben-arie, and E. Chalutz, Biological control of postharvest diseases of grape, peach, and apple with the yeasts Kloeckera apiculata and Candida guilliermondii, Plant Disease, vol.76, pp.470-473, 1992.

P. Melgarejo, R. Carrillo, and E. M. Sagasta, Potential for biological control of Monilinia laxa in peach twigs, Crop Protection, vol.5, pp.422-426, 1986.

J. Mercier and J. I. Jimenez, Control of fungal decay of apples and peaches by the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol.31, pp.1-8, 2004.

Q. Migheli, M. L. Gullino, S. Piano, A. Galliano, and C. Duverney, Biocontrol capability of Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Pseudomonas syringae against postharvest rots of apple under semicommercial condition, Universiteit Gent, vol.62, pp.1065-1070, 1997.

H. K. Ngugi, S. Dedej, K. S. Delaplane, A. T. Savelle, and H. Scherm, Effect of flower-applied Serenade biofungicide (Bacillus subtilis) on pollination-related variables in rabbiteye blueberry, Biological Control, vol.33, pp.32-38, 2005.

S. Pascual, P. Melgarejo, and M. Naresh, Accumulation of compatible solutes in Penicillium frequentans grown at reduced water activity and biocontrol of Monilinia laxa, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.10, pp.71-80, 2000.

P. L. Pusey, Use of Bacillus subtilis and related organisms as biofungicides, Pesticide Science, vol.27, pp.133-140, 1989.

P. L. Pusey, M. W. Hotchkiss, H. T. Dulmage, R. A. Baumgardner, E. I. Zehr et al., Pilot tests for commercial production and application of Bacillus subtilis (B-3) for postharvest control of peach brown rot, Plant Disease, vol.72, pp.622-626, 1988.

P. L. Pusey and C. L. Wilson, Postharvest biological control of stone fruit brown rot by Bacillus subtilis, Plant Disease, vol.68, pp.753-756, 1984.

P. L. Pusey, C. L. Wilson, M. W. Hotchkiss, and J. D. Franklin, Compatibility of Bacillus subtilis for postharvest control of peach brown rot with commercial fruit waxes, dicloran, and cold-storage conditions, Plant Disease, vol.70, pp.587-590, 1986.

G. Z. Qin and S. P. Tian, Enhancement of biological control activity of Cryptococcus laurentii by silicon and the possible mechanisms involved, Phytopathology, vol.95, pp.69-75, 2005.

G. Z. Qin, S. P. Tian, Y. Xu, Z. L. Chan, and B. Q. Li, Combination of antagonistic yeasts with two food additives for control of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on sweet cherry fruit, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.100, pp.508-515, 2006.

E. Ritte, S. Lurie, S. Droby, Z. Ismailov, I. Chet et al., Biocontrol of postharvest fungal pathogens of peaches and apples by Pantoae agglomerans strain IC1270, Bulletin OILB/SROP, vol.25, pp.199-202, 2002.

L. Schena, F. Nigro, I. Pentimone, A. Ligorio, and A. Ippolito, Control of postharvest rots of sweet cherries and table grapes with endophytic isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol.30, pp.209-220, 2003.

H. Scherm, H. K. Ngugi, A. T. Savelle, and J. R. Edwards, Biological control of infection of blueberry flowers caused by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, Biological Control, vol.29, pp.199-206, 2004.

H. Scherm and R. D. Stanaland, Evaluation of fungicide timing strategies for control of mummy berry disease of rabbiteye blueberry in Georgia, Small Fruits Review, vol.1, pp.69-81, 2001.

A. M. Schilder, J. F. Hancock, and E. J. Hanson, An integrated approach to disease control in blueberries in Michigan, Acta Horticulturae, pp.481-488, 2006.

G. Schnabel and J. Mercier, Use of a Muscodor albus pad delivery system for the management of brown rot of peach in shipping cartons, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol.42, pp.121-123, 2006.

I. V. Shevchuk, Efficiency of biofungicides against dominating diseases of cherries and plums under the different climatic conditions of Ukraine, Phytopathologia Polonica, pp.125-131, 2006.

J. L. Smilanick, R. Denis-arrue, J. R. Bosch, A. R. Gonzalez, D. Henson et al., Control of postharvest brown rot of nectarines and peaches by Pseudomonas species, Crop Protection, vol.12, pp.513-520, 1993.

D. Spadaro, R. Vola, S. Piano, and M. L. Gullino, Mechanisms of action and efficacy of four isolates of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima active against postharvest pathogens on apples, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol.24, pp.123-134, 2002.

R. A. Spotts, L. A. Cervantes, and T. J. Facteau, Integrated control of brown rot of sweet cherry fruit with a preharvest fungicide, a postharvest yeast, modified atmosphere packaging, and cold storage temperature, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol.24, pp.251-257, 2002.

C. Stevens, V. A. Khan, J. Y. Lu, C. L. Wilson, P. L. Pusey et al., Integration of ultraviolet (UV-C) light with yeast treatment for control of postharvest storage rots of fruits and vegetables, Biological Control, vol.10, pp.98-103, 1997.

C. Stevens, V. A. Khan, J. Y. Lu, C. L. Wilson, P. L. Pusey et al., The germicidal and hormetic effects of UV-C light on reducing brown rot disease and yeast microflora of peaches, Crop Protection, vol.17, pp.75-84, 1998.

H. A. Thornton, A. T. Savelle, and H. Scherm, Evaluating a diverse panel of biocontrol agents against infection of blueberry flowers by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.18, pp.391-407, 2008.

S. Tian, G. Qin, and Y. Xu, Survival of antagonistic yeasts under field conditions and their biocontrol ability against postharvest diseases of sweet cherry, Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol.33, pp.327-331, 2004.

R. S. Utkhede and P. L. Sholberg, In vitro inhibition of plant pathogens by Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes and in vivo control of two postharvest cherry diseases, Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol.32, pp.963-967, 1986.

Y. Wang and S. Tian, Interaction between Cryptococcus laurentii, Monilinia fructicola and sweet cherry fruit at different temperatures, Scientia Agricultura Sinica, vol.40, pp.2811-2820, 2007.

M. Wisniewski, C. Wilson, A. El-ghaouth, and S. Droby, Increasing the ability of the biocontrol product, Aspire, to control postharvest diseases of apple and peach with the use of additives, Bulletin OILB/SROP, vol.24, pp.157-160, 2001.

H. P. Wittig, K. B. Johnson, and J. W. Pscheidt, Effect of epiphytic fungi on brown rot blossom blight and latent infections in sweet cherry, Plant Disease, vol.81, pp.383-387, 1997.

X. Xu, Z. Chan, Y. Xu, and S. Tian, Effect of Pichia membranaefaciens combined with salicylic acid on controlling brown rot in peach fruit and the mechanisms involved, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.88, pp.1786-1793, 2008.

H. J. Yao and S. P. Tian, Effects of a biocontrol agent and methyl jasmonate on postharvest diseases of peach fruit and the possible mechanisms involved, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.98, pp.941-950, 2005.

T. Zhou, J. Northover, and K. E. Schneider, Biological control of postharvest diseases of peach with phyllosphere isolates of Pseudomonas syringae, Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, vol.21, pp.375-381, 1999.

T. Zhou, K. E. Schneider, L. , and X. , Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola, International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol.126, pp.180-185, 2008.

C. Michel-aceves, A. , and M. A. Otero-sanchez, The antagonistic effect of native strains of Trichoderma spp. was evaluated in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) and Fusarium subglutinans (Fs), causal agents of mango "witches' broom". Ten strains of the antagonistic fungus were isolated, one of which was selected and identified to the species level (T. harzianum); this species showed the highest percentage of antagonism inhibiting mycelial growth of Fo by 62.9% and 42.0% of Fs. In dual Cultures between Fo and/or Fs with the selected strains of Trichoderma, the time for the first contact for Fo was between 3 and 4 days, and between 2 and 3 for Fs. The greatest intersection area (0.87 cm) was observed in T. lignorum against Fo, while the intersection area in Fs with the native strain Thzn-2 was 0.85 cm. Native strains Thzn-2 and Thzcf-12, and the commercial one showed antagonism class 2, being able to stop growth of both plant pathogens, vitro biocontrol of Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenweb. and Reinking), vol.27, pp.18-26, 2009.

V. K. Chebotar and N. M. Makarova, Antifungal and phytostimulating characteristics of Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 rhizospheric strain, producer of bioprepations, Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, vol.45, issue.4, pp.419-423, 2009.

, Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 industrial strain was shown to have a wide spectrum of antagonistic activities against different species of phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. The B. subtilis Ch-13 strain produces lytic enzymes; cyanide and other antifungal metabolites; stimulates plant growth, producing phytohormones-auxin derivatives. This strain by 2.5 times reduced the quantity of tomato plants infected with phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum during inoculation. Fungi abundance on roots with bacterial inoculation was 6.9 times less than in the absence of inoculation. The application of detected antifungal metabolites as biochemical markers for the strain enables to control the stability of physiologic and biochemical characteristics of the producer

L. Chen and W. Chen, Antagonistic activity of recombinant F35 against FOM was increased by 34.52% and 65.48% compared to that of the parent strain HN8-7 with highest activity and another parent strain utilized, BS14. The tolerance to chemical fungicides was also significantly improved (p0.05) compared to that of strain BS14. Reduction of FOM of 94% was observed by using recombinant F35, which was increased by 45% compared to that of strain BS14 (p0.05) and no significant differences (p>0.05) compared to that of thiophanate methyl (MRL). Reduction of FOM of 100% was dramatically observed by using an integrated treatment combining MRL (50% of usual dosage) with recombinant F35. Strain F35 with these improved traits would be a promising biocontrol agent in the control of FOM, Genome shuffling enhanced antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and tolerance to chemical fungicides in Bacillus subtilis BS14, vol.7, pp.856-860, 2009.

F. Clematis and M. L. Gullino, We report the results obtained in biological control trials against crown and root rot of tomato incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici by using microorganisms isolated from soilless cultivation systems that showed suppressiveness against this disease. Among the tested microorganisms belonging to fluorescent bacteria (32 isolates) and to fungi belonging to Trichoderma (39 isolates) and Fusarium (38 isolated), 5 bacteria and 6 fungi showed a good activity against the pathogen. Such strains will be used in greenhouse trials, under situations closer to the field, Protezione delle Colture, issue.3, pp.29-33, 2009.

E. Paredes-escalante, J. , and J. Carrillo-fasio, Antagonistic microorganismos for control of the fungal complex that cause wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in the state of Sinaloa, Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, vol.27, issue.1, pp.27-35, 2009.

, CIAD-990111). These strains and a commercial strain of T. harzianum (T-22) were mixed with Glomus intraradices and their effectiveness to reduce chickpea wilt was compared against a chemical treatment (PCNB) and all absolute control in the field. The seed was treated with the microorganisms before sowing and evaluations of disease severity were conducted each 15 days, The antagonistic activity in vitro of microorganisms isolated from chickpea rhizosphere, was evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Rhizoctonia solani

+. G. , infraradices was 33 x 10(3) ufc/g fresh root-75% and B. subtilis + G. intraradices was 1.3 x 10(8) Ufc/g fresh root-75%; while the combination P.fluorescens + G. intraradices was 1.4 x 10(7) Ufc/g fresh root-88%. These treatments also showed a reduction of disease severity in 64, 57, and 51%

S. M. El-khallal, Benzoic and Galleic acids contents markedly decreased, however, contents of coumaric, cinnamic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids increased in leaves of all treatments. Also, activity of lignification enzymes POX, PPX and PAL significantly increased in leaves of infected tomato plants. JA-treated plants caused the highest POX and PPX activities, while SA-treated plants having the highest PAL activities. High accumulation of phenolic compounds and activity POX, PPX and PAL in these plants may reflect a component of many defense signals activated by bioagent and hormonal inducers which leading to the activation of power defense system in tomato against attack. Analysis of protein electrophoresis revealed that interaction between hormone signal (JA & SA) and bioagent AM fungi mediating the expression of the majority of different PR-proteins leading to increasing defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum infection. Thus, induction of protein bands of molecular weights 35, Induction and modulation of resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt disease by bioagent fungi (arbuscular mycorrhiza) and/or hormonal elicitors (jasmonic acid & salicylic acid): 2 -changes in the antioxidant enzymes, phenolic compounds and pathogen related-proteins, vol.1, pp.31-33, 2007.

G. Floch and J. Vallance, To reduce Pythium oligandrum biocontrol variability and improve its efficacy, experiments were performed by combining the oomycete with two other antagonistic fungi, Fusarium dishes, Fo47 or T. harzianum hyphae destroyed P. oligandrum cells by antibiosis and mycoparasitism processes; in the rhizosphere of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum), the same antagonistic features were observed. However, in the rhizosphere, hyphae are frequently separated by a certain distance; this allows the coexistence and the persistence of the three microorganisms on the root systems. When introduced in the rhizosphere, Fo47 and P. oligandrum were able to penetrate the root tissues with Fo47 limited to the epidermal and upper layers of cortical cells while P. oligandrum colonized deeper tissue at a faster rate. The two antagonists were killed in few days within roots following elicited plant-defense reactions. T. harzianum was not able to penetrate root tissues. Root colonization with either P.oligandrum alone or in combination with Fo47 and/or T. harzianum resulted in systemic plant resistance which provided plant protection against Botrytis cinerea infection of leaves, Biological Control, vol.50, issue.3, pp.288-298, 2009.

M. I. Gay and . Anonymous, The strain of Trichoderma asperellum T34(2) CECT No. 20417 is useful for preparing substrates for biological control of vascular fusariose and death of plants caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The substrates can be peats, composts (hardwood compost, pine bark compost, cork compost, sludge compost from sewage treatment plants, garden residues, etc.) or formulations based on CPV-type compost (compost+peat+vermiculite). The fact that the substrates suppress both Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Rhizoctonia solani provides an advantage in comparison with other substrates known in prior art, Substrates containing a Trichoderma asperellum strain for biological control of Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, 2009.

X. Huang and J. Luo, Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic fungi in Derris hancei, Journal of South China Agricultural University, vol.30, issue.2, pp.44-47, 2009.

H. Derris-hancei, S1 against Colletotrichum orbiculare Arx, and Phomopsis sp. N2 against Colletotrichum musae (Berk1 & Curt1) Arx1 on dual culture with inhibition index II. It was reported that endophytic fungus in D.hancei could produced antibacterial substances in this paper. The culture filtrates of Penicillium sp. Q2 treated in 48 h after treatment possessed 100.00% of adjusted mortality against the 2nd larvae of Spodoptera litura by leaves disc feeding bioassays, and 75.10% against Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach (apterous adult) by insect-soaking method, respectively, which showed that the activity of Penicillium sp. Q2 was higher than that of other endophytic fungi. to regulate the cell growth rate by controlling interactively the nutrient feed rate, temperature, pH and agitation speed based on dissolved oxygen. In batch cultivation, the process suffered from low yield of cell mass (3.2 g litre-1) and antifungal activity because of high initial glucose concentration followed by acetate formation which the causal agent for inhibition of cell growth. Constant and exponential fed-batch strategies were adopted to circumvent this potential problem. Fed-batch cultivation of B. subtilis was conducted at the specific growth rate of 0.13 and 0.1 h-1 for constant and exponential strategies, respectively. High cell density of 12.8 and 14.6 g litre-1 for both operations, The antagonism of endophytic fungi against fungal pathogens was tested in vitro. Penicillium sp. Q1, Rhizoctonia sp. S1, Phomopsis sp. N2, and Corticium sp. F1 isolated from the caudex of D. hancei, and Penicillium sp. Q2 isolated from the leaf, inhibited the hyphal growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, Fusarium oxysporum f. niveum (E. F. Smith) Snyber et Hansen, Rhizoctonia sp

S. Mazurier and T. Corberand, In this study, the role of bacterial antibiosis in Fusarium wilt suppressiveness was assessed by comparing the densities, diversity and activity of fluorescent Pseudomonas species producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (phlD+) or phenazine (phzC+) antibiotics. The frequencies of phlD+ populations were similar in the suppressive and conducive soils but their genotypic diversity differed significantly. However, phlD genotypes from the two soils were equally effective in suppressing Fusarium wilt, either alone or in combination with non-pathogenic F. oxysporum strain Fo47. A mutant deficient in DAPG production provided a similar level of control as its parental strain, suggesting that this antibiotic does not play a major role. In contrast, phzC+ pseudomonads were only detected in the suppressive soil. Representative phzC+ isolates of five distinct genotypes did not suppress Fusarium wilt on their own, but acted synergistically in combination with strain Fo47. This increased level of disease suppression was ascribed to phenazine production as the phenazine-deficient mutant was not effective. These results suggest, for the first time, Phenazine antibiotics produced by fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to natural soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt, vol.3, pp.977-991, 2009.

D. Minerdi and S. Bossi, Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35, Environmental Microbiology, vol.11, issue.4, pp.844-854, 2009.

, Typing experiments and virulence tests provided evidence that the F. oxysporum isolate when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms identical to those caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Here, we demonstrate that small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the WT strain negatively influence the mycelial growth of different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, these VOCs repress gene expression of two putative virulence genes in F. oxysporum lactucae strain Fuslat10, a fungus against which the WT strain MSA 35 has antagonistic activity. The VOC profile of the WT and CU fungus shows different compositions. Sesquiterpenes, mainly caryophyllene, were present in the headspace only of WT MSA 35. No sesquiterpenes were found in the volatiles of ectosymbiotic Serratia sp. strain DM1 and Achromobacter sp. strain MM1. Bacterial volatiles had no effects on the growth of the different ff. spp. of F. oxysporum examined. Hyphae grown with VOC from WT F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae strain MSA 35 were hydrophobic whereas those grown without VOCs were not, suggesting a correlation between the presence of volatiles in the atmosphere and the phenotype of the mycelium. This is the first report of VOC production by antagonistic F. oxysporum MSA 35 and their effects on pathogenic F. oxysporum. The results obtained in this work led us to propose a new potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonism by F, Fusarium oxysporum MSA 35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic Fusarium that lives in association with a consortium of bacteria belonging to the genera Serratia, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas in an Italian soil suppressive to Fusarium wilt

M. H. Nam and M. S. Park, Two isolates, Bacillus sp. BS87 and RK1, selected from soil in strawberry fields in Korea, showed high levels of antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. The isolates were identified as B. velezensis based on the homology of their gyrA sequences to reference strains. BS87 and RK1 were evaluated for control of Fusarium wilt in strawberries in pot trials and field trials conducted in Nonsan, Korea. In the pot trials, the optimum applied concentration of BS87 and RK1 for pre-plant root-dip application to control Fusarium wilt was 10(5) and 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, in the 2003 and 2005 field trials, the biological control efficacies of formulations of RK1 were similar to that of a conventional fungicide (copper hydroxide) when compared with a non-treated control. The RK1 formulation was also more effective than BS87 in suppressing, Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.19, issue.5, pp.520-524, 2009.

M. Narayan and P. Tini, Wilt of tomato is one of the most important known disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In the present study four bioagents (Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and two fungicides (Carbendazim and Thiram) were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo conditions, Journal of Soils and Crops, vol.19, issue.1, pp.118-121, 2009.

K. Recep and S. Fikrettin, In this study, a total of 17 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains, consisting of eight different species (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus macerans and Flavobacter balastinium), were tested for antifungal activity in in vitro (on Petri plate) and in vivo (on potato tuber) conditions against Fusarium sambucinum, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium culmorum cause of dry rot disease of potato. All PGPR strains had inhibitory effects on the development of at least one or more fungal species on Petri plates. The strongest antagonism was observed in B. cepacia strain OSU-7 with inhibition zones ranging from 35.33 to 47.37 mm. All PGPR strains were also tested on tubers of two potato cultivars 'Agria' and 'Granola' under storage conditions. Only B. cepacia strain OSU-7 had significant effects on controlling potato dry rot caused by three different fungi species on the two potato cultivars. There were no significant differences in rot diameters among the treatments in comparison to the negative control (with water), Biological Control, vol.50, issue.2, pp.194-198, 2009.

T. Riaz and S. N. Khan, Field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of co-cultivation and crop rotation on the growth and corm rot disease of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus sect. Blandus) cv. Aarti caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. and Hans. In the field experiment, gladiolus was co-cultivated with 10 agricultural/horticultural crops viz. Allium cepa L., Brassica campestris L., Capsicum annuum L., Eruca sativa Mill., Helianthus annuus L., Tagetes erectus L., Zea mays L., Vinca rosea L. and Rosa indica L., in a soil infested with F. oxysporum. All the crops except V. rosea and R. indica reduced disease incidence. The effect of H. annuus and T. erectus was significant and more pronounced than other co-cultivated crops. In general, root and shoot dry biomass, corm fresh weight, number of cormlets and number of flowers per spike decreased as compared to the un-inoculated monoculture gladiolus treatment (negative control) but these parameters enhanced as compared to the F. oxysporum inoculated monoculture gladiolus treatment (positive control). In a pot experiment, all the crops of the field experiment except V. rosea and R. indica were sown in rotation with gladiolus. Pot grown plants of different species were harvested at maturity and the soil was inoculated with F oxysporum. Gladiolus was cultivated I week after inoculation. Disease incidence was significantly suppressed in all the treatments ranging from 29% to 53%. The highest suppression of disease incidence was recorded in T erectus (53%) followed by B. campestris (49%). The effect of preceding crops on various vegetative parameters was similar in the pot experiment to that of the field experiment. The present study suggests that corm rot disease of gladiolus can be managed by, Effect of co-cultivation and crop rotation on corm rot disease of Gladiolus, vol.121, pp.218-222, 2009.

N. Saidi and S. Kouki, Characterization and selection of Bacillus sp strains, effective biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp radicis-lycopersici, the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot in tomato, Annals of Microbiology, vol.59, issue.2, pp.191-198, 2009.

, Under dual culture, 10 isolates inhibited mycelial growth > 38% and the most effective inhibited fungal growth > 50%. The 20 Bacillus isolates were tested for production of volatiles, cyanide, antibiotics, and phosphorus solubilisation; 15 isolates produced volatiles that inhibited growth of pathogens, 9 isolates produced cyanide, 10 produced antibiotics, and five solubilised phosphorus. Greenhouse experiments with the same 20 isolates revealed the effectiveness of 12 strains, which increased the percentage of healthy plants in the tested cultivar from 66 to 96%. The best disease control was achieved by isolates B11, B5, B17, and B18. However, B11 and B17 were the only isolates that produced cyanide, antibiotics, solubilised phosphate and showed 44% inhibition of fungal growth, The antagonistic activities of 20 Bacillus isolates were tested with dual culture and greenhouse conditions against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) race 0, the causal agent of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato

Y. W. Shi and K. Lou, The present investigation was undertaken in order to document the spectrum of endophytes colonizing healthy leaves of sugar beet cultivars in Xinjiang Province ( China) and to determine the degree of colonization at three growth stages. From the 360 sugar beet leaf and root segments incubated, 221 bacterial isolates, 34 fungal isolates and 5 actinomycete isolates were obtained. Of all the isolates, 7 bacterial species and 6 fungal species were identified. The actinomycete isolates were characterized as Streptomyces griseofuscus and Streptomyces globisporus. There were significant differences between microorganisms, stages of growth, and stages of microorganism interaction. The number of microorganisms isolated increased during the growth period of the sugar beet. At the same time, the number of microorganisms affecting different parts of the sugar beet tissue was quite different. The greatest number of microorganisms was found in the secondary root emergence zone of the sugar beet tissue, African Journal of Biotechnology, vol.8, issue.5, pp.835-840, 2009.

S. H. Son and Z. Khan, Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Paenibacillus lentimorbus suppress disease complex caused by root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt fungus, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.107, issue.2, pp.524-532, 2009.

, Methods and Results: Paenibacillus strains were collected from rotten ginseng roots. The strains were tested under in vitro and pots for their inhibitory activities, and biocontrol potential against disease complex caused by M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato, vitro experiments, among 40 tested strains of Paenibacillus spp., 11 strains showed antifungal and nematicidal activities against F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and M. incognita, respectively, p.462

, These three strains used in pot experiment reduced the symptom development of the disease complex (wilting and plant death), and increased plant growth. The control effects were estimated to be 90-98%, and also reduced root gall formation by 64-88% compared to the untreated control. Conclusion: The protective properties of selected Paenibacillus strains make them as potential tool to reduce deleterious impact of disease complex plants. Significance and Impact of the Study: The study highlights biocontrol potential of Paenibacillus strains in management, GBR-508 and P. lentimorbus GBR-158 showed the strongest antifungal and nematicidal activities

K. Srinivasan and G. Gilardi, ) cfu ml(-1)) were adopted in different glasshouse trials (Trial I to VI) to test the efficacy of the bacterial strains against Fusarium wilt. Root dipping was used in Trial VII (10(8) and 10(9) cfu ml(-1)). The lowest: disease incidence (3.3) was recorded with a single application of P. putida FC-6B at 10(8) cfu ml(-1), conclusion, the current study showed the potential biocontrol activity of bacterial strains FC-6B, FC-7B, FC-8B, FC-9B and FC-24B, vol.91, pp.147-154, 2009.

D. K. Srivastava and A. K. Singh, during 2005-06 yielded associated pathogen on PDA medium. The antagonistic activity of biological control agents against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was determined using dual culture method. All the antagonists and fungicide inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium, however, Trichoderma viride caused maximum inhibition of mycelial growth. Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium virens, carbendazim and thiram, which showed significant in vitro inhibition of Fusarium were tested in the field. Maximum increase in seed germination (83.4%), seedling survival (79.0) and plant height, Unao, vol.17, pp.257-258, 2009.

D. T. Thanh and L. T. Tarn, Biological Control of Soilborne Diseases on Tomato, Potato and Black Pepper by Selected PGPR in the Greenhouse and Field in Vietnam, Plant Pathology Journal, vol.25, issue.3, pp.263-269, 2009.

, While these bio-products significantly reduced disease severities, EXTN-1 was the most effective, providing a mean level of disease reduction 80.0 to 90.0% against bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt and foot rot diseases under greenhouse conditions. ESSC and MFMF also significantly reduced fusarium wilt, bacterial wilt and foot rot severity under greenhouse conditions. Bio-product, EXTN-1 with the greatest efficacy under greenhouse condition was tested for the ability to reduce bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt and foot rot under field condition at Song Phuong and Thuong Tin locations in Ha Tay province, Bacterial wilt, Fusarium wilt and Foot rot caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Phytophthora capsici respectively

H. Wu and X. Yang, Compared with control pots, the incidence rates of Fusarium wilt at 27 and 63 days following treatment of the plants with the bio-organic fertilizer at a rate of 0.5% (organic fertilizer+antagonistic microorganisms, including 3*109 CFU g-1 respectively, in both the growth chamber and greenhouse settings. The activities of antioxidases (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) in watermelon leaves increased by 38.9, 150 and 250%, respectively. In the roots, stems and leaves, the activity of beta-1,3-glucanase (pathogenesis-related proteins) increased by 80, 1140 and 100% and that of chitinase increased by 240, 80, and 20%, respectively, while the contents of malondialdehyde fell by 56.8, 42.1 and 45.9%, respectively. These results indicate that this new fertilizer formula is capable of protecting watermelon from Fusarium oxysporum f, Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microorganisms, vol.54, pp.287-300, 2009.

Q. Wu and H. Zeng, Under different conditions, the stabilities of fermentation broth of WZ162 were detected. The results showed that the fermentation broth of WZ162 had better heat stability when temperature of water bath was below 80C. The antibiotics ingredient of fermentation broth would not be changed and can maintain the antifungal activity under conditions of sun light and ultraviolet rays, Guangxi Agricultural Sciences, vol.40, issue.4, pp.366-369, 2009.

X. Yin and D. Chen, Antagonism of the strain against FOC was tested via dual-culture, inhibition test on conidia germination, and pot trials. Results showed that E353 effectively inhibited mycelium growth and conidia germination. Efficacy of strain E353 to control the wilt disease was 60.67% in pot trials, Chinese Journal of Biological Control, vol.25, issue.1, pp.60-65, 2009.

X. Zhong and M. Liang, effective antagonist against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens, was isolated and identified as Trichoderma sp. based upon 18S rDNA gene analysis. With solid and liquid cultures, the inhibitive efficacy to the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens was primarily studied. The experimental results showed that the cells of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens were completely covered by short fiber-like hyphace and spore stem of G2 within 7 days in the dual culture plate, and in the antagonist plate, the average rate of inhibitory by the culture solution of G2 was about 90.4%, the average rate of the inhibitory by volatile substance reached 68.3%. After 10 days' incubation with 20% (v/v) fungal strain G2, the melt of the pathogenic mycel and spore were observed, Journal of Fruit Science, vol.26, issue.2, pp.186-189, 2009.

H. Zhu and Y. Ma, Method: The biocontrol efficacy and growth promotion of single and combining strains were analyzed by antagonistic activity in vitro and manual inoculation in vivo. Result: Strain SC11 and SE2 had significant inhibiting effect on Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. niveum and Verticillium dahliae in vitro. Inhibiting rate on conidia germination was also high; in greenhouse experiment, 84.93% control ratio to Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. niveum and 71. 48% to Verticillium dahliae were found by C2; The fermentation broth of C3 had the most significant effect for every index of watermelon. The effect on reduction intensity of watermelon rootage was obvious. For eggplant, the growth promotion was only inferior to strain SF6. Conclusion: These results suggested that the control effect and growth promotion of combining biocontrol strains are significantly higher than individual, and combining strains express complementary biocontrol activities by collaboration, Control effect of combining biocontrol strains against Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. niveum and Verticillium dahliae, vol.37, pp.152-156, 2009.

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, BCA introduction : see table 1

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A. V. Alyokhin, P. J. Yang, and R. H. Messing, Distribution and parasitism of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) eggs in Hawaii, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol.94, pp.664-673, 2001.

D. M. Amalin, J. E. Pena, and R. E. Duncan, Effects of host age, female parasitoid age, and host plant on parasitism of Ceratogramma etiennei (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), Florida Entomologist, vol.88, pp.77-82, 2005.

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L. D. Andreassen, U. Kuhlmann, P. G. Mason, and N. J. Holliday, Classical biological control of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, in Canadian canola: an analysis of research needs. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, vol.2, 2007.

Y. Argov and Y. Gazit, Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel: Introduction and establishment of natural enemies, Biological Control, vol.46, pp.502-509, 2008.

S. L. Ariori and S. K. Dara, Predation of Neozygites tanajoae-infected cassava green mites by the predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, vol.72, pp.169-72, 2007.

A. Aristizabal, E. Salazar, M. Mejia, and P. Bustillo, Introduction and evaluation of Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in smallholder coffee farms, through participatory research, Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, vol.30, pp.219-243, 2004.

N. D. Barlow, N. P. Caldwell, J. M. Kean, and M. C. Barron, Modelling the use of NPV for the biological control of Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar invading New Zealand, Agricultural and Forest Entomology, vol.2, pp.173-84, 2000.

T. P. Batchelor, I. Hardy, J. F. Barrera, and G. Perez-lachaud, Insect gladiators II: Competitive interactions within and between bethylid parasitoid species of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Biological Control, vol.33, pp.194-202, 2005.

H. Baur, F. J. Muller, G. Gibson, P. G. Mason, and U. Kuhlmann, A review of the species of Mesopolobus (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) associated with Ceutorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) host-species of European origin, Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.97, pp.387-97, 2007.

G. G. Bazzocchi, A. Lanzoni, G. Accinelli, and G. Burgio, Overwintering, phenology and fecundity of Harmonia axyridis in comparison with native coccinellid species in Italy, BioControl, vol.49, pp.245-60, 2004.

J. Bento, M. Gjd, M. Apd, and A. C. Bellotti, Classical biological control of the mealybug Phenacoccus herreni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in northeastern Brazil, Environmental Entomology, vol.29, pp.355-364, 2000.

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E. A. Boyd and M. S. Hoddle, Host specificity testing of Gonatocerus spp. egg-parasitoids used in a classical biological control program against Homalodisca vitripennis: a retrospective analysis for non-target impacts in southern California, Biological Control, vol.43, pp.56-70, 2007.

J. A. Briano and D. F. Williams, Natural occurrence and laboratory studies of the fire ant pathogen Vairimorpha invictae (Microsporida: Burenellidae) in Argentina, Environmental Entomology, vol.31, pp.887-94, 2002.

R. A. Casagrande and L. A. Tewksbury, Lily leaf beetle biological control: research report to the North American Lily Society, pp.35-41, 2005.

J. M. Chacon, D. A. Landis, and G. E. Heimpel, Potential for biotic interference of a classical biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Biological Control, vol.46, pp.216-241, 2008.

J. Charles, Introduction of a parasitoid for mealybug biocontrol: a case study under new environmental legislation, Proceedings of a conference, Quality Hotel, vol.54, pp.37-41, 2001.

J. G. Charles and D. J. Allan, An ecological perspective to host-specificity testing of biocontrol agents, Proceedings of a conference, Centra Hotel, vol.55, pp.13-15, 2002.

A. Chinajariyawong, A. R. Clarke, M. Jirasurat, S. Kritsaneepiboon, and H. A. Lahey, Survey of opiine parasitoids of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand and Malaysia, Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, vol.48, pp.71-101, 2000.

D. E. Conlong and R. Goebel, Proceedings of the Annual Congress -South African Sugar Technologists' Association 32. Cossentine JE, Kuhlmann U. 2007. Introductions of parasitoids to control the apple ermine moth in British Columbia, Biological control: a global perspective, pp.13-22, 2002.

M. Costanzi, F. Frassetti, and J. C. Malausa, Biological control of the psyllid Ctenarytaina eucalypti Maskell in eucalyptus plantations of Ligurian Riviera, Informatore Fitopatologico, vol.53, pp.52-58, 2003.

D. Coutinot and K. Hoelmer, Parasitoids of Lygus spp. in Europe and their potential for biological control of Lygus spp, North America. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Pests in Agriculture, Part, vol.3, 1999.

T. W. Culliney and J. K. Grace, Prospects for the biological control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), with special reference to Coptotermes formosanus, Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.90, pp.9-21, 2000.

K. M. Daane, M. L. Cooper, S. V. Triapitsyn, J. W. Andrews, J. Ripa et al., Parasitoids of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Hem.: Pseudococcidae) in California: establishment of Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Hym.: Encyrtidae) and discussion of related parasitoid species, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.18, pp.43-57, 2008.

K. M. Daane, K. R. Sime, X. G. Wang, H. Nadel, and M. W. Johnson, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential biological control agent for the olive fruit fly in California, Biological Control, vol.44, pp.79-89, 2008.

W. H. Day, Changes in abundance of native and introduced parasites (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and of the target and non-target plant bug species (Hemiptera: Miridae), during two classical biological control programs in alfalfa, Biological Control, vol.33, pp.368-74, 2005.

I. Delalibera, R. A. Humber, and A. E. Hajek, Preservation of in vitro cultures of the mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae, Canadian Journal of Microbiology, vol.50, pp.579-86, 2004.

A. B. Dillon, A. N. Rolston, C. V. Meade, M. J. Downes, and C. T. Griffin, Establishment, persistence, and introgression of entomopathogenic nematodes in a forest ecosystem, Ecological Applications, vol.18, pp.735-782, 2008.

A. Dimitrov, O. Karadjova, and G. Sengalevich, Investigation on the potential of a new imported parasitoid against aphids in Bulgaria, Rasteniev'dni Nauki, vol.45, pp.25-32, 2008.

S. L. Elliot, M. Gjd, I. Delalibera, J. Silva-cadd, M. A. Tamai et al., Potential of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana (Entomophthorales: Neozygitaceae) for control of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae), Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.90, pp.191-200, 2000.

S. L. Elliot, J. D. Mumford, and M. Gjd, The role of resting spores in the survival of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana from Mononychellus tanajoa during dry periods in Brazil, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol.81, pp.148-57, 2003.

G. Emana, Suitability of Chilo partellus, Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca for the development of Cotesia flavipes in Ethiopia: implication for biological control, Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences, vol.4, pp.123-157, 2005.

K. Fiaboe, R. L. Fonseca, M. Gjd, C. Ogol, and M. Knapp, Identification of priority areas in South America for exploration of natural enemies for classical biological control of Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Africa, Biological Control, vol.38, pp.373-382, 2006.

P. J. Folgarait, R. Patrock, and L. E. Gilbert, Development of Pseudacteon nocens (Diptera: Phoridae) on Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.99, pp.295-307, 2006.

J. C. Franco, P. Suma, E. Borges-da-silva, and M. Z. , Management strategies of mealybug pests of citrus in Mediterranean countries, Bulletin OILB/SROP, vol.26, p.137, 2003.

J. R. Fuxa and A. R. Richter, Classical biological control in an ephemeral crop habitat with Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus, BioControl, vol.44, pp.403-422, 1999.

F. Garcia-mari, R. Vercher, J. Costa-comelles, C. Marzal, and M. Villalba, Establishment of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a biological control agent for the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Spain, Biological Control, vol.29, pp.215-241, 2004.

T. D. Gariepy, U. Kuhlmann, C. Gillott, and M. Erlandson, Does host plant influence parasitism and parasitoid species composition in Lygus rugulipennis? A molecular approach, Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.98, pp.217-238, 2008.

R. D. Gautam, Classical biological control of pink hibiscus mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (green) in the Caribbean, Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad), vol.55, pp.1-8, 2003.

G. Gibson, D. R. Gillespie, and L. Dosdall, The species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) introduced to North America for biological control of the cabbage seedpod weevil, and the first recovery of Stenomalina gracilis (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), Canadian Entomologist, vol.138, pp.285-91, 2006.

L. E. Gilbert, C. L. Barr, A. A. Calixto, J. L. Cook, and B. M. Drees, Introducing phorid fly parasitoids of red imported fire ant workers from South America to Texas: Outcomes vary by region and by pseudacteon species released, Southwestern Entomologist, vol.33, pp.15-29, 2008.

D. R. Gillespie, P. G. Mason, L. M. Dosdall, P. Bouchard, and G. Gibson, Importance of long-term research in classical biological control: an analytical review of a release against the cabbage seedpod weevil in North America, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol.130, pp.401-410, 2006.

D. Gnanvossou, R. Hanna, J. S. Yaninek, M. Toko, C. S. Gold et al., Biology and integrated pest management for the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Integrated Pest Management Reviews, vol.35, pp.79-155, 2001.

J. A. Goolsby, P. J. Debarro, A. A. Kirk, R. W. Sutherst, and L. Canas, Post-release evaluation of biological control of Bemisia tabaci biotype "B" in the USA and the development of predictive tools to guide introductions for other countries, Biological Control, vol.32, pp.70-77, 2005.

J. Grandgirard, M. S. Hoddle, J. N. Petit, D. M. Percy, G. K. Roderick et al., Pre-introductory risk assessment studies of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) for use as a classical biological control agent against Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the Society Islands of French Polynesia, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.17, pp.809-831, 2007.

J. Grandgirard, M. S. Hoddle, J. N. Petit, G. K. Roderick, and N. Davies, Engineering an invasion: classical biological control of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, by the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus ashmeadi in Tahiti and Moorea, Biological Invasions, vol.10, pp.135-183, 2008.

J. Grandgirard, M. S. Hoddle, S. V. Triapitsyn, J. N. Petit, G. K. Roderick et al., First records of Gonatocerus dolichocerus Ashmead, Palaeoneura sp, Anagrus sp. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), and Centrodora sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in French Polynesia, with notes on egg parasitism of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vol.83, pp.177-84, 2007.

R. A. Gwiazdowski, D. Rgv, A. Desnoyers, S. Lyon, and S. Wu, Possible geographic origin of beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), an invasive pest in North America, Biological Control, vol.39, pp.9-18, 2006.

A. Hajek, M. Mcmanus, and I. Delalibera, Catalogue of introductions of pathogens and nematodes for classical biological control of insect and mites, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team 63, 2005.

A. E. Hajek and M. L. Mcmanus, A review of introductions of pathogens and nematodes for classical biological control of insects and mites, Biological Control, vol.41, pp.1-13, 2007.

L. M. Hanks, J. G. Millar, T. D. Paine, and C. D. Campbell, Classical biological control of the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California, Environmental Entomology, vol.29, pp.369-75, 2000.

T. Haye, A. Cv, H. Goulet, B. Barratt, and U. Kuhlmann, Potential for classical biological control of the potato bug Closterotomus norwegicus (Hemiptera: Miridae): description, parasitism and host specificity of Peristenus closterotomae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.96, pp.421-452, 2006.

K. S. Hemachandra, N. J. Holliday, J. Klimaszewski, P. G. Mason, and U. Kuhlmann, Erroneous records of Aleochara bipustulata from North America: an assessment of the evidence, Canadian Entomologist, vol.137, pp.182-189, 2005.

K. S. Hemachandra, N. J. Holliday, P. G. Mason, J. J. Soroka, and U. Kuhlmann, Comparative assessment of the parasitoid community of Delia radicum in the Canadian prairies and Europe: a search for classical biological control agents, Biological Control, vol.43, pp.85-94, 2007.

D. C. Henne, S. J. Johnson, and J. T. Cronin, Population spread of the introduced red imported fire ant parasitoid, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae), in Louisiana, Biological Control, vol.42, pp.97-104, 2007.

S. L. Hill and M. A. Hoy, Interactions between the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta and the parasitoid Lipolexis scutellaris potentially affect classical biological control of the aphid Toxoptera citricida, Biological Control, vol.27, pp.11-20, 2003.

M. S. Hoddle, Identifying the donor region within the home range of an invasive species: implications for classical biological control of arthropod pests, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.

M. S. Hoddle, Historical review of control programs for Levuana iridescens (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) in Fiji and examination of possible extinction of this moth by Bessa remota (Diptera: Tachinidae), Pacific Science, vol.60, pp.439-53, 2006.

M. S. Hoddle, S. Nakahara, and P. A. Phillips, Foreign exploration for Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and associated natural enemies on avocado (Persea americana Miller), Biological Control, vol.24, pp.251-65, 2002.

N. Holst and W. G. Meikle, Teretrius nigrescens against larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus in African maize stores: biological control at work?, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.40, pp.307-326, 2003.

E. Hougardy, T. M. Bezemer, and N. J. Mills, Effects of host deprivation and egg expenditure on the reproductive capacity of Mastrus ridibundus, an introduced parasitoid for the biological control of codling moth in California, Biological Control, vol.33, pp.96-106, 2005.

M. A. Hoy, Classical biological control of citrus pests in Florida and the Caribbean: interconnections and sustainability, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.237-53, 2005.

M. A. Hoy, A. Jeyaprakash, C. Rhodes, and L. , Molecular and field analyses of the fortuitous establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in Jamaica as a natural enemy of the brown citrus aphid, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.17, pp.473-82, 2007.

M. A. Hoy, A. Jeyaprakash, and R. Nguyen, Long PCR is a sensitive method for detecting Liberobacter asiaticum in parasitoids undergoing risk assessment in quarantine, Biological Control, vol.22, pp.278-87, 2001.

M. A. Hoy, R. Singh, and M. E. Rogers, Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), and natural enemy dynamics in Central Florida during, Florida Entomologist, vol.90, pp.358-69, 2005.

B. P. Hurley, B. Slippers, P. K. Croft, H. J. Hatting, and L. Mvd, Factors influencing parasitism of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) by the nematode Deladenus siricidicola (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) in summer rainfall areas of South Africa, Biological Control, vol.45, pp.450-459, 2008.

J. A. Jacas, J. E. Pena, R. E. Duncan, and B. J. Ulmer, Thermal requirements of Fidiobia dominica (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Haeckeliania sperata (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), two exotic egg parasitoids of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), BioControl, vol.53, pp.451-60, 2008.

T. A. Jackson, A. M. Crawford, and T. R. Glare, Oryctes virus -time for a new look at a useful biocontrol agent, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol.89, pp.91-95, 2005.

W. H. Jenner, J. E. Cossentine, J. Whistlecraft, and U. Kuhlmann, Host rearing is a bottleneck for classical biological control of the cherry bark tortrix: a comparative analysis of artificial diets, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.15, pp.519-544, 2005.

W. H. Jenner, U. Kuhlmann, J. E. Cossentine, and B. D. Roitberg, Reproductive biology and small-scale rearing of cherry bark tortrix and its candidate biological control agent, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol.129, pp.437-479, 2005.

M. T. Johnson, P. A. Follett, A. D. Taylor, and V. P. Jones, Impacts of biological control and invasive species on a non-target native Hawaiian insect, Oecologia, vol.142, pp.529-569, 2005.

A. L. Joyce, L. M. Hanks, T. D. Paine, and J. G. Millar, Effect of host larval size on sex ratio of progeny of Syngaster lepidus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking Phoracantha semipunctata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and P. recurva borers on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, California Conference on Biological Control, vol.II, pp.11-12, 2000.

M. Kairo, G. V. Pollard, D. D. Peterkin, and V. F. Lopez, Biological control of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Caribbean, Integrated Pest Management Reviews, vol.5, pp.241-54, 2000.

M. Kenis, Possibilities for classical biological control against forest pests through collaborative programmes between Europe and North Africa, Bulletin OILB/SROP, vol.22, pp.145-50, 1999.

M. Kenis and D. Cugala, Prospects for the biological control of the groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella, Africa. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, vol.1, 2006.

M. Kenis, R. Tomov, A. Svatos, P. Schlinsog, and C. L. Vaamonde, The horse-chestnut leaf miner in Europe -prospects and constraints for biological control, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.

R. L. Koch, M. A. Carrillo, R. C. Venette, C. A. Cannon, and W. D. Hutchison, Cold hardiness of the multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Environmental Entomology, vol.33, pp.815-837, 2004.

R. L. Koch, W. D. Hutchison, R. C. Venette, and G. E. Heimpel, Susceptibility of immature monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae), to predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), vol.28, pp.265-70, 2003.

R. Krugner, M. W. Johnson, R. L. Groves, and J. G. Morse, Host specificity of Anagrus epos: a potential biological control agent of Homalodisca vitripennis, BioControl, vol.53, pp.439-488, 2008.

S. Krull and T. Basedow, Evaluation of the biological control of the pink wax scale Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hom., Coccidae) with the introduced parasitoid Anicetus beneficus Ishii & Yasumatsu (Hym., Encyrtidae) in the Central province of Papua New Guinea, Journal of Applied Entomology, vol.129, pp.323-332, 2005.

U. Kuhlmann, S. Toepfer, and Z. Feng, Is classical biological control against western corn rootworm in Europe a potential sustainable management strategy?, Western corn rootworm: ecology and management, 2005.

L. A. Lacey, T. R. Unruh, and H. L. Headrick, Interactions of two idiobiont parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol.83, pp.230-239, 2003.

T. A. Lambkin, Successful establishment of Encarsia ?haitiensis Dozier (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Torres Strait, Queensland, for the biological control of Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Australian Entomologist, vol.31, pp.83-91, 2004.

J. Langewald and P. Neuenschwander, Challenges in coordinating regional biological control projects in Africa: classical biological control versus augmentative biological control, Biocontrol News and Information, vol.23, pp.101-108, 2002.

I. Lauziere, J. C. Legaspi, B. C. Legaspi, J. Smith, J. W. et al., Life-history studies of Lydella jalisco (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), BioControl, vol.46, pp.71-90, 2001.

L. M. Lawson-balagbo, M. Gondim, J. Moraes-gjd, R. Hanna, and P. Schausberger, Refuge use by the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis: fine scale distribution and association with other mites under the perianth, Biological Control, vol.43, pp.735-782, 2007.

U. T. Lim and M. A. Hoy, Biological assessment in quarantine of Semielacher petiolatus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a potential classical biological control agent of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in Florida. Biological Control, vol.33, pp.87-95, 2005.

U. T. Lim, L. Zappala, and M. A. Hoy, Pre-release evaluation of Semielacher petiolatus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in quarantine for the control of citrus leafminer: host discrimination, relative humidity tolerance, and alternative hosts, Biological Control, vol.36, pp.65-73, 2006.

E. Llacer, A. Urbaneja, A. Garrido, and J. A. Jacas, Temperature requirements may explain why the introduced parasitoid Quadrastichus citrella failed to control Phyllocnistis citrella in Spain, BioControl, vol.51, pp.439-52, 2006.

V. F. Lopez and M. Kairo, Old solutions to new problems: new perspectives on the sustainable management of pests through biological control, Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting, pp.25-31, 1999.

B. Lu, C. Tang, Z. Peng, S. Jl, and F. Wan, Biological assessment in quarantine of Asecodes hispinarum Boucek (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as an imported biological control agent of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) in Hainan, China. Biological Control, vol.45, pp.29-35, 2008.

D. B. Lyons, Phenology of the native parasitoid Sinophorus megalodontis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) relative to its introduced host, the pine false webworm (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae), Canadian Entomologist, vol.131, pp.787-800, 1999.

J. C. Malausa, L. Giuge, and X. Fauvergue, Acclimatization and spreading in France of Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae) introduced to control Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Hemiptera, Flatidae), Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, vol.108, pp.97-102, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02680019

M. Mani and A. Krishnamoorthy, Classical biological control of the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell -an appraisal, Insect Science and its Application, vol.22, pp.263-73, 2002.

S. Mansfield, D. J. Kriticos, K. Potter, and M. C. Watson, Parasitism of gum leaf skeletoniser (Uraba lugens) in New Zealand, Proceedings of a conference, vol.58, pp.9-11, 2005.

T. Matsumoto, T. Itioka, and T. Nishida, Is spatial density-dependent parasitism necessary for successful biological control? Testing a stable host-parasitoid system, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol.110, pp.191-200, 2004.

M. R. Mcneill, S. L. Goldson, J. R. Proffitt, C. B. Phillips, and P. J. Addison, A description of the commercial rearing and distribution of Microctonus hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Biological Control, vol.24, pp.167-75, 2002.

R. H. Messing, The role of parasitoids in eradication or area-wide control of tephritid fruit flies in the Hawaiian Islands, Proceedings of the International Conference on eradication of island invasives, 2003.

J. P. Michaud, Classical biological control: a critical review of recent programs against citrus pests in Florida, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol.95, pp.531-571, 2002.

N. Mills, Classical biological control of codling moth: the California experience, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.

D. Moore, Non-chemical control of Aceria guerreronis on coconuts, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Coconut mite, pp.6-8, 2000.

A. S. Morozov, S. V. Rytova, and L. C. Thompson, Introducing entomophagous insects to control pests: prediction of target species density, Russian Entomological Journal, vol.12, pp.441-446, 2003.

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D. Sands and W. Liebregts, Biological control of fruit piercing moth (Eudocima fullonia Clerck ) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Pacific: exploration, specificity, and evaluation of parasitoids, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.

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P. A. Shah and J. K. Pell, Entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.61, pp.413-436, 2003.

S. Rgd, S. Ebd, and J. C. Franco, Parasitoid complex of citrus leafminer on lemon orchards in Portugal, Bulletin OILB/SROP, vol.29, pp.197-204, 2006.

K. R. Sime, K. M. Daane, A. Kirk, J. W. Andrews, M. W. Johnson et al., Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California, Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.97, pp.233-275, 2007.

K. R. Sime, K. M. Daane, H. Nadel, C. S. Funk, and R. H. Messing, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and D. kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential parasitoids of the olive fruit fly, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.16, pp.169-79, 2006.

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G. Siscaro, S. Barbagallo, S. Longo, P. Reina, and L. Zappala, Results of the introduction of exotic parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) in Sicily, Phytophaga (Palermo), vol.9, pp.31-40, 1999.

G. Siscaro, V. Caleca, P. Reina, M. C. Rizzo, and L. Zappala, Current status of the biological control of the citrus leafminer in Sicily, Bulletin OILB/SROP, vol.26, pp.29-36, 2003.

L. H. Skelley and M. A. Hoy, A synchronous rearing method for the Asian citrus psyllid and its parasitoids in quarantine, Biological Control, vol.29, pp.14-23, 2004.

D. Smith, D. Papacek, and C. Neale, The successful introduction to Australia of Diversinervus sp. near Stramineus Compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Kenyan parasitoid of green coffee scale, General and Applied Entomology, vol.33, pp.33-42, 2004.

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D. C. Steinkraus, G. O. Boys, and J. A. Rosenheim, Classical biological control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) with Neozygites fresenii (Entomophthorales: Neozygitaceae) in California cotton, Biological Control, vol.25, pp.297-304, 2002.

A. Stewart-jones, R. J. Hodges, D. I. Farman, and D. R. Hall, Solvent extraction of cues in the dust and frass of Prostephanus truncatus and analysis of behavioural mechanisms leading to arrestment of the predator Teretrius nigrescens, Physiological Entomology, vol.31, pp.63-72, 2006.

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A. Suazo, N. Arismendi, J. H. Frank, and R. D. Cave, Method for continuously rearing Lixadmontia franki (Diptera: Tachinidae), a potential biological control agent of Metamasius callizona (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Florida Entomologist, vol.89, pp.348-53, 2006.

D. J. Sullivan, K. M. Daane, K. R. Sime, J. W. Andrews, and J. , Protective mechanisms for pupae of Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of the red-gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), Australian Journal of Entomology, vol.45, pp.101-106, 2006.

M. Takagi, M. Okumura, M. Shoubu, A. Shiraishi, and T. Ueno, Classical biological control of the alfalfa weevil in Japan, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.

L. Tewksbury, M. S. Gold, R. A. Casagrande, and M. Kenis, Establishment in North America of Tetrastichus setifer Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Lilioceris lilii (Coleopetera: Chrysomelidae), Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.

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S. Toepfer, F. Zhang, J. Kiss, and U. Kuhlmann, The invasion of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica vergifera virgifera, in Europe and potential for classical biological control, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.

G. D. Tribe and J. J. Cillie, The spread of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera : Siricidae) in South African pine plantations and the introduction and establishment of its biological control agents, African Entomology, vol.12, pp.9-17, 2004.

V. A. Trjapitzin and S. V. Triapitsyn, A new species of Neoplatycerus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Egypt, parasitoid of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), Entomological News, vol.113, pp.203-213, 2002.

M. Tuda, T. Matsumoto, T. Itioka, N. Ishida, and M. Takanashi, Climatic and intertrophic effects detected in 10-year population dynamics of biological control of the arrowhead scale by two parasitoids in southwestern Japan, Population Ecology, vol.48, pp.59-70, 2006.

A. Urbaneja, E. Llacer, A. Garrido, and J. A. Jacas, Interspecific competition between two ectoparasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): Cirrospilus brevis and the exotic Quadrastichus sp, Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), vol.28, pp.243-50, 2003.

R. I. Vargas, L. Leblanc, R. Putoa, and A. Eitam, Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera : Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera : Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia, Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.100, pp.670-679, 2007.

R. J. Vazquez, S. D. Porter, and J. A. Briano, Field release and establishment of the decapitating fly Pseudacteon curvatus on red imported fire ants in Florida, BioControl, vol.51, pp.207-223, 2006.

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R. A. Wharton and V. Lopez-martinez, A new species of Triaspis Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, vol.102, pp.794-801, 2000.

G. L. White, M. Kairo, and V. Lopez, Classical biological control of the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi by Amitus hesperidum in Trinidad, BioControl, vol.50, pp.751-760, 2005.

W. H. White, T. E. Reagan, J. W. Smith, and J. A. Salazar, Refuge releases of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera : braconidae) into the Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem, Environmental Entomology, vol.33, pp.627-659, 2004.

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K. Wyckhuys, J. E. Strange-george, C. A. Kulhanek, F. L. Wackers, and G. E. Heimpel, Sugar feeding by the aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis: how does honeydew compare with other sugar sources, Journal of Insect Physiology, vol.54, pp.481-91, 2008.

S. Yaninek and R. Hanna, Cassava green mite in Africa -a unique example of successful classical biological control of a mite pest on a Continental scale, Biological control in IPM systems in Africa, 2002.

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URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02682737

F. Zhang, S. Toepfer, K. Riley, and U. Kuhlmann, Reproductive biology of Celatoria compressa (Diptera: Tachinidae), a parasitoid of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol.14, pp.5-16, 2004.

G. Zilahi-balogh, L. T. Kok, and S. M. Salom, Host specificity of Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a potential biological control agent of the hemlock wooly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae). Biological Control, vol.24, pp.192-200, 2002.

G. Zilahi-balogh, L. T. Kok, and S. M. Salom, A predator case history: Laricobius nigrinus, a derodontid beetle introduced against the hemlock woolly adelgid, Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, pp.12-16, 2005.