A. El-wahad, Experimental studies of diet composition (electrolyte contents), litter quality (type, moisture) and infection (coccidian) on the development and severity of foot pad dermatitis in young turkeys housed with or without floor heating, 2011.

Y. Akbas, S. Yalçin, S. Özkan, F. Klrkplnar, . Takma et al., Heritability estimates of tibial dyschondroplasia, valgus-varus, foot-pad dermatitis and Tarse burn in broiler, Arch.Geflügelk, vol.73, pp.1-9, 2008.

V. Allain, L. Mirabito, C. Arnould, M. Colas, S. Le-bouquin et al., Skin lesions in broiler chickens measured at the slaughterhouse : relationships between lesions and between their prevalence and rearing factors, British poultry science, vol.50, pp.407-417, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02666692

M. J. Alam, M. A. Howlider, M. A. Pramanik, and M. A. Haque, Effect of exogenous enzyme in diet on broiler performance.Int'l, J. Poult. Sci, vol.2, issue.2, pp.168-173, 2003.

C. Arnould and L. Colin, Evaluation du bien-être des poulets de chair en élevage commercial : Premiers résultats Français issus du projet Welfare Quality. Huitième journée de la recherche avicole, 2007.

C. Arnould, Septième journée de la recherche avicole, St Malo, 30 et 31 mars, Bien-être du poulet de chair: mesures, problèmes rencontrés et moyens d'action, 2005.

B. Ask, Genetic variation of contact dermatitis in broilers, Poult. Sci, vol.89, pp.866-875, 2010.

C. C. Berg, Foot-pad dermatitis in broilers and turkeys: prevalence, risk factors and prevention, Swedish university of agricultural sciences, 1998.

S. F. Bilgili, M. A. Alley, J. B. Hess, and M. Nagaraj, Influence of age and sex on footpad quality and yield in broiler chickens reared on low and high density diets, J. Appl. Poul. Res, vol.15, pp.433-441, 2006.

S. F. Bilgili, J. B. Hess, J. P. Blake, K. S. Macklin, B. Saenmahayak et al., Influence of bedding material on footpad dermatitis in broiler chickens, J. Appl. Poul. Res, vol.18, pp.583-589, 2009.

R. Brambell, Report of the Technical Committee to enquire into the welfare of animals kept under intensive livestock husbandry systems. London, United Kingdom: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1965.

D. M. Broom and N. Reefmann, Chicken welfare as indicated by lesions on carcase in supermarkets, British poultry science, vol.46, pp.407-414, 2005.

D. W. Bruce, S. G. Mcllroy, and E. A. Goodall, Epidemiology of a contact dermatitis of broilers, Avian pathology, vol.19, pp.523-537, 1990.

C. Carenzi and M. Verga, Animal welfare: review of the scientific concept and definition, Ital.J.Anim.Sci, vol.8, pp.21-30, 2009.

B. Carre´, A. Idi, S. Maisonnier, J. P. Melcion, F. X. Oury et al., Relationships between digestibilities of feed components and characteristics of wheats (Triticum aestivum) introduced as the only cereal source in a broiler chicken diet, Br. Poult. Sci, vol.43, pp.404-415, 2002.

B. Carré, S. Mignon-grasteau, B. Svihus, A. Péron, D. Bastianelli et al., Sellier, N : Nutritional effects of feed form, and wheat compared to maize, in the D+ and D-chicken lines selected for divergent digestion capacity, Proceedings of the 15 th European Symposium of Poultry Nutrition, 2005.

H. Balatonfüred, , pp.42-44, 2005.

E. Chavez and F. H. Kratzer, Prevention of foot pad dermatitis in poults with methionine, Poultry science, vol.51, pp.1545-1548, 1972.

E. Chavez and F. H. Kratzer, Effect of diet on foot pad dermatitis in poults, Poultry science, vol.53, pp.755-760, 1974.

, Laying down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production, Official journal of the European Union, 2007.

M. S. Dawkins, C. A. Donnelly, and T. A. Jones, Chickent welfare is influenced more by housing conditions than by stocking density, Nature, vol.427, pp.342-344, 2004.

. De-verdal and . Hugues, Possibilités de reduction des rejets chez le poulet par la selection génétique, 2011.

C. Ekstrand, T. E. Carpenter, I. Andersson, and B. Algers, Prevalence and control of foot-pad dermatitis in broilers in Sweden, British poultry science, vol.39, pp.318-324, 1998.

J. A. Greene, R. M. Mccraken, and R. T. Evans, A contact dermatitis of broilersclinical and pathological findings, Avian pathology, vol.14, pp.23-38, 1985.

J. L. Grimes, T. A. Carter, and J. L. Godwin, Use of a litter material made from cotton waste, gypsum and old newsprint for rearing broiler chickens, Poultry science, vol.85, pp.563-568, 2006.

P. W. Groot-koerkamp, Review on emissions of ammonia from housing systems for laying hens in relation to sources, processes, building design and manure handling, J. agric. Eng. Res, vol.59, pp.73-87, 1994.

C. E. Hancock, G. D. Bradford, G. C. Emmans, and R. M. Gous, The evaluation of the growth parameters of six strains of commercial broiler chickens, Br. Poult. Sci, vol.36, pp.247-264, 1995.

R. H. Harms and C. F. Simpson, Biotin deficiency as a possible cause of swelling and ulceration of foot pads, Poultry science, vol.54, pp.1711-1713, 1975.

S. Hashimoto, K. Yamazaki, Y. Obi, and K. Takase, Footpad dermatitis in broiler chickens in Japan. Avian pathology, vol.73, pp.293-297, 2011.

S. M. Haslam, S. N. Brown, L. J. Wilkins, S. C. Kestin, P. D. Warriss et al., Preliminary study to examine the utility of using foot burn or Tarse burn to assess aspects of housing conditions for broiler chicken, British poultry science, vol.47, pp.13-18, 2006.

S. M. Haslam, T. G. Knowles, S. N. Brown, L. J. Wilkins, S. C. Kestin et al., Factors affecting the prevalence of foot pad dermatitis, Tarse burn and breast burn in broiler chicken, British poultry science, vol.48, pp.264-275, 2007.

G. B. Havenstein, P. R. Freket, and M. A. Qureshi, Growth, livability, and feed conversion of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets, Poultry science, vol.82, pp.1500-1508, 2003.

L. S. Jensen, R. Martinson, and G. Schumaier, A foot pad dermatitis in turkey poults associated with soybean meal, Poult. Sci, vol.49, pp.76-82, 1970.

D. N. Kapell, W. G. Hill, A. Neeteson, J. Mcadam, A. N. Koerhuis et al., Genetic parameters of foot-pad dermatitis and body weight in purebred broiler lines in 2 contrasting environments, Poultry science, vol.91, pp.565-574, 2012.

S. C. Kestin, G. Su, and P. Sørensen, Different commercial broiler crosses have different susceptibilities to leg weakness, Poultry Sci, vol.78, pp.1085-1090, 1999.

J. B. Kjaer, G. Su, B. L. Nielsen, and P. Sorensen, Foot pad dermatitis and Tarse burn in broiler chickens and degree of inheritence, Poultry science, vol.85, pp.1342-1348, 2006.

L. Lebart, A. Morineau, T. Lambert, and P. Pleuvret, Système SPAD. CISIA-CERESTA, 1999.

W. L. Marusich, E. F. Ogrinz, M. Brand, and M. Mitrovic, Introduction, prevention and therapy of biotin deficiency in turkey poults on semi-purified and commercial-type rations, Poult. Sci, vol.49, p.412, 1970.

M. F. Martland, Wet litter as a cause of planter pododermatitis, leading to foot ulceration and lamness in fattening turkeys, Avian pathology, vol.13, pp.241-252, 1984.

M. F. Martland, Ulcerative dermatitis dm broiler chickens: The effects of wet litter, Avian pathology, vol.14, pp.353-364, 1985.

R. K. Mayne, A review of the aetiology and possible causative factors of foot pad dermatitis in growing turkeys and broilers. World's poultry science journal, vol.61, pp.256-267, 2005.

R. K. Mayne, R. W. Else, and P. M. Tarseing, High dietary concentrations of biotin did not prevent foot pad dermatitis in growing turkeys and external scores were poor indicators of histopathological lesions, British poultry science, vol.48, pp.291-298, 2007.

R. K. Mayne, R. W. Else, and P. M. Tarseing, High litter moisture alone is not sufficient to cause footpad dermatitis in growing turkeys, British poultry science, vol.48, pp.538-545, 2007.

J. Mcginnis and J. S. Carver, The effect of Riboflavin and Biotin in the prevention of dermatitis and perosis in turkey poults, Poult. Sci, vol.4, pp.364-371, 1947.

S. G. Mcllroy, E. A. Goodall, and C. H. Mcmurray, Acontact dermatitis pf broilers -epidemiological findings, Avian pathology, vol.16, pp.93-105, 1987.

A. S. Mendes, S. J. Paixo, R. Restelatto, R. Reffatti, J. C. Possenti et al., Effects of initial body weight and litter material on broiler production, Brazilian journal of poultry science, vol.13, pp.165-170, 2011.

, MOV: Product Board for Margarine, Fats and Oils, 2011.

A. Meluzzi, C. Fabbri, E. Folgatti, and F. Sirri, Survey of chicken rearing conditions in Italy: effects of litter quality and stocking density on productivity, foot dermatitis and carcase injuries, British poultry science, vol.49, pp.257-264, 2008.

A. Meluzzi, C. Fabbri, E. Folgatti, and F. Sirri, Effect of less intensive rearing conditions on litter characterstics, growth performance, cacase injuries and meat quality of broilers, British poultry science, vol.49, pp.509-515, 2008.

S. Mignon-grasteau, O. Lafeuille, J. Y. Dourmad, S. Hillion, D. Bastianelli et al., Consequences of selection for digestibility on feeding activity and excretion, XIIIth European Poultry Conference, p.615, 2010.

D. M. Miles, S. L. Branton, and B. D. Lott, Atmospheric ammonia is detrimental to the performance of modern commercial broilers, Poultry science, vol.83, pp.1650-1654, 2004.

L. Mirabito, M. Colas, C. Arnould, V. Allain, and V. Michel, Analyse des relations entre différentes lésions indicatrices du bien-être chez le poulet de chair. Septième journée de la recherche avicole, Tours, 28 et 29 mars, 2007.

L. Mirabito, L. Ziemniak, and D. Chevalier, Cinétique des pododermatites chez les poulets de chair élevés sur paille ou coupeaux en élevage commercial. Septième journée de la recherche avicole, Tours, 28 et 29 mars, 2007.

W. M. Mirza, Improvement in litter quality and leg health by nutritional modification in growing turkeys, 2011.

C. D. Mateo and N. F. Carandang, Feeding and economic evaluation of corn, wheat, and sorghum based diets in broilers, Philippine journal of science, vol.135, pp.49-58, 2006.

M. G. Murillo and L. S. Jensen, Sulfur amino acids requirements and footpad dermatitis in turkeys poults, Poult. Sci, vol.55, pp.554-562, 1976.

M. Nagaraj, Evaluation of nutrition and management factors in the aetiology of pododermatitis in broiler chickens, MS.c. thesis. Auburn university: USA, 2006.

P. Olivère, Bien-être du poulet de chair : détermination des conditions d'ambiance et des caractéristiques physico-chimiques de la litière responsables de l'apparition de dermatites de contact en poulet de chair. Mémoire de fin d'études en master FAGE ; biologie et écologie pour la forêt, l'agronomie et l'environnement, spécialité Biologie animale et systèmes d'élevage, 2010.

A. Pagazaurtundua and P. D. Warriss, Levels of foot pad dermatitis in broiler chickens reared in 5 different systems, British poultry science, vol.47, pp.529-532, 2006.

H. Patrick, M. I. Darrow, and C. L. Morgan, The role of Riboflavin in turkey poults nutrition, vol.23, pp.146-148, 1944.

S. Platt, S. Buda, and K. D. Budras, The influence of biotin on foot pad lesions in turkey's poults. Page 143-148 in, Proceedings of the 8 th Symposium: Vitamine und Zusatzstoffe in der Ernahrung von Mensch und Tier, 2001.

C. W. Ritz, B. D. Fairchild, and M. P. Lacy, Implications of ammonia production and emissions from commercial poultry facilities: A review, J.Appl.Poul.Res, vol.13, pp.684-692, 2004.

C. W. Ritz, B. D. Fairchild, and M. P. Lacy, Cooperative extension service, the university of Georgia collage of agricultural and environmental sciences, Bulletin, vol.1267, 2005.

. Sas-institute, SAS user's guide. Statistics. Version 9, 2004.

E. M. Shepherd and B. D. Fairchild, Footpad dermatitis -invited review, Poultry science, vol.89, pp.2043-2051, 2010.

A. Smith, S. P. Rose, R. G. Wells, and V. Pirgozliev, Effeect of excess dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on excreta moisture of laying hens, British poultry science, vol.41, pp.598-607, 2000.

G. Su, P. Sorensen, and S. C. Kestin, A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens, Poultry science, vol.79, pp.1259-1263, 2000.

B. Svihus, The gizzard: function, influence of diet structure and effects on nutrition availability, World's Poult. Sci. J, vol.67, pp.207-223, 2011.

S. A. Tucker and A. W. Walker, Hock burn in broiler. Pages 33-50 in Recent advances in poultry nutrition 2, 1999.

I. Veissier, A. Boissy, J. Capdeville, and C. Sarignac, Le bien-être des animaux d'élevage : comment peut-on le définir et l'évaluer ? Le Point Vétérinaire, vol.31, pp.117-124, 2000.

I. M. Youssef, Experimental studies on effects of diet composition and litter quality on development and severity of foot pad dermatitis in growing turkeys, 2011.

A. , Playing chicken: The U.S.-China "broiler feet" dispute

, Impacts de l'élevage sur l'environnement

, China embroiled in trade spat over chicken feet

, Study on the implication s of asynchronous GMO approvals for EU imports of animal feed protein

, Veterinary medicine: Biotin

, Vers plus d'indépendance en soja d'importation pour l'alimentation animale en Europe