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Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of the Cheese Ripening Yeast Geotrichum candidum

Abstract : The yeast Geotrichum candidum (teleomorph Galactomyces candidus) is inoculated onto mold- and smear-ripened cheeses and plays several roles during cheese ripening. Its ability to metabolize proteins, lipids, and organic acids enables its growth on the cheese surface and promotes the development of organoleptic properties. Recent multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic analyses of G. candidum isolates revealed substantial genetic diversity, which may explain its strain-dependant technological capabilities. Here, we aimed to shed light on the phenotypic and genetic diversity among eight G. candidum and three Galactomyces spp. strains of environmental and dairy origin. Phenotypic tests such as carbon assimilation profiles, the ability to grow at 35 degrees C and morphological traits on agar plates allowed us to discriminate G. candidum from Galactomyces spp. The genomes of these isolates were sequenced and assembled; whole genome comparison clustered the G. candidum strains into three subgroups and provided a reliable reference for MLST scheme optimization. Using the whole genome sequence as a reference, we optimized an MLST scheme using six loci that were proposed in two previous MLST schemes. This new MLST scheme allowed us to identify 15 sequence types (STs) out of 41 strains and revealed three major complexes named GeoA, GeoB, and GeoC. The population structure of these 41 strains was evaluated with STRUCTURE and a NeighborNet analysis of the combined six loci, which revealed recombination events between and within the complexes. These results hint that the allele variation conferring the different STs arose from recombination events. Recombination occurred for the six housekeeping genes studied, but most likely occurred throughout the genome. These recombination events may have induced an adaptive divergence between the wild strains and the cheesemaking strains, as observed for other cheese ripening fungi. Further comparative genomic studies are needed to confirm this phenomenon in G. candidum. In conclusion, the draft assembly of 11 G. candidum/Galactomyces spp. genomes allowed us to optimize a genotyping MLST scheme and, combined with the assessment of their ability to grow under different conditions, provides a reliable tool to cluster and eventually improves the selection of G. candidum strains.
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Déposant : Eric Dugat-Bony <>
Soumis le : vendredi 26 juin 2020 - 11:13:26
Dernière modification le : lundi 16 novembre 2020 - 17:54:07

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Vincent Perkins, Stéphanie Vignola, Marie-Helene Lessard, Pier-Luc Plante, Jacques Corbeil, et al.. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of the Cheese Ripening Yeast Geotrichum candidum. Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media, 2020, 11, ⟨10.3389/fmicb.2020.00737⟩. ⟨hal-02873333⟩

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