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Microbiota, liver diseases, and alcohol

Abstract : Being overweight and obesity are the leading causes of liver disease in Western countries. Liver damage induced by being overweight can range from steatosis, harmless in its simple form, to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol consumption is an additional major cause of liver disease. Not all individuals who are overweight or excessively consume alcohol develop nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and advanced liver disease. The role of the intestinal microbiota (IM) in the susceptibility to liver disease in this context has been the subject of recent studies. ALD and NAFLD appear to be influenced by the composition of the IM, and dysbiosis is associated with ALD and NAFLD in rodent models and human patient cohorts. Several microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, are specifically associated with dysbiosis. Recent studies have highlighted the causal role of the IM in the development of liver diseases, and the use of probiotics or prebiotics improves some parameters associated with liver disease. Several studies have made progress in deciphering the mechanisms associated with the modulation of the IM. These data have demonstrated the intimate relationship between the IM and metabolic liver disease, suggesting that targeting the gut microbiota could be a new preventive or therapeutic strategy for these diseases.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02928521
Contributor : Philippe Gérard <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, September 2, 2020 - 3:53:18 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, May 6, 2021 - 10:53:38 AM

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Philippe Gerard, Anne-Marie Cassard-Doulcier, Gabriel Perlemuter. Microbiota, liver diseases, and alcohol. Bugs as Drugs, American Society of Microbiology, pp.187-212, 2018, ⟨10.1128/microbiolspec.BAD-0007-2016⟩. ⟨hal-02928521⟩

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