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Janssen's effect in a granular cell revisited by experiments and numerical simulations

Abstract : The classic experience of filling a container with a granular medium poured from a source point reveals the presence of the intergranular force network by the manifestation of the Janssen effect (Janssen, 1895). Indeed, the measurement of the stress applied at the base of the container according to the bed particle height, shows that the static mechanical state of the ensiled granular medium is characterized by the lateral deflection of gravity forces to the walls via the network of intergranular contacts. In order to model this difference from a hydrostatic state, Janssen (1895) purposed to integrate all along the cell, the stress balance established at a layer scale. This equation universally used, is defined with three major hypotheses: (i) lateral uniformity of the vertical stress in each layer, (ii) the lateral stress is still proportional to the vertical stress (definition of the redirection coefficient), and (iii) the sliding threshold condition at the walls. With these assumptions the model describes the experimental profile of the vertical stress with its particular "saturant" slope (Ovarlez and Clément, 2005). If mechanical properties are involved to explain this apparent phenomenon understood as a static equilibrium, the free surface analysis during pouring correlated to the local mechanical state allows to indicate that kinetic energy has an influence on the Janssen effect (Duri et al. 2018). In order to revisit the Janssen effect, experiments and Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations are compared to investigate the structure of an ensiled granular medium poured in a cell by a single point at different initial drop heights and flow rates (parameters which allow to control kinetic energy). A population of glass beads of 1 to 2 mm diameter with a small span value (50/50 in volume) is poured in an open glass cell container made of transparent glass walls. A flat steel probe is used to simulate the bottom of the cell and allows the measurement of the applied vertical stress, as in Janssen's experiment (Janssen, 1895). The probe is screwed on a rod that is linked to a load cell of a texture analyser (TA.XT2, Table Micro System), which is used as a force sensor. The filling is provided by a funnel and the flow rate is modulated by the output diameter.
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Contributor : Julien Lehuen <>
Submitted on : Friday, September 11, 2020 - 2:17:26 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, March 18, 2021 - 10:02:02 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, December 4, 2020 - 5:09:22 PM


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  • HAL Id : hal-02936580, version 1


Julien Lehuen, Jean-Yves Delenne, Abdelkrim Sadoudi, Denis Cassan, Agnès Duri, et al.. Janssen's effect in a granular cell revisited by experiments and numerical simulations. Powders and Granular Materials, Jun 2019, Montpellier, France. ⟨hal-02936580⟩



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