O. Hamant, Science, vol.322, pp.1650-1655, 2008.

A. Peaucelle, R. Wightman, and H. Höfte, Curr. Biol, vol.25, pp.1746-1752, 2015.

M. Bosch, A. Y. Cheung, and P. K. Hepler, Plant Physiol, vol.138, pp.1334-1346, 2005.

F. Nicol, EMBO J, vol.17, pp.5563-5576, 1998.

A. Bichet, T. Desnos, S. Turner, O. Grandjean, and H. Höfte, Plant J, vol.25, pp.137-148, 2001.

T. Zhang, D. Vavylonis, D. M. Durachko, and D. J. Cosgrove, Nat. Plants, vol.3, p.17056, 2017.

A. R. Paredez, C. R. Somerville, and D. W. Ehrhardt, Science, vol.312, pp.1491-1495, 2006.

L. Tan, Plant Cell, vol.25, pp.270-287, 2013.

M. A. Atmodjo, Z. Hao, and D. Mohnen, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol, vol.64, pp.747-779, 2013.

T. Wang and M. Hong, J. Exp. Bot, vol.67, pp.503-514, 2016.

A. Peaucelle, Concepts in Cell Biology -History and Evolution, vol.23, pp.139-154, 2018.

D. J. Cosgrove, J. Exp. Bot, vol.67, pp.463-476, 2016.

T. I. Baskin, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol, vol.21, pp.203-222, 2005.

A. M. Wiedemeier, Development, vol.129, pp.4821-4830, 2002.

Y. Fu, T. Xu, L. Zhu, M. Wen, and Z. Yang, Curr. Biol, vol.19, pp.1827-1832, 2009.

A. Sapala, A. Runions, and R. S. Smith, Curr. Opin. Plant Biol, vol.47, pp.1-8, 2019.

M. Majda, Dev. Cell, vol.43, pp.290-304, 2017.

B. Altartouri, Plant Physiol, vol.181, pp.127-141, 2019.

M. D. Walkinshaw and S. Arnott, J. Mol. Biol, vol.153, pp.1075-1085, 1981.

M. D. Walkinshaw and S. Arnott, J. Mol. Biol, vol.153, pp.1055-1073, 1981.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Science, vol.319, pp.810-813, 2008.

E. Betzig, Science, vol.313, pp.1642-1645, 2006.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods, vol.3, pp.793-795, 2006.

M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, and X. Zhuang, Science, vol.317, pp.1749-1753, 2007.

M. Heilemann, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed, vol.47, pp.6172-6176, 2008.

Y. Verhertbruggen, S. E. Marcus, A. Haeger, J. J. Ordaz-ortiz, and J. P. Knox, Carbohydr. Res, vol.344, pp.1858-1862, 2009.

F. Liners, J. Letesson, C. Didembourg, and P. Van-cutsem, Plant Physiol, vol.91, pp.1419-1424, 1989.

G. T. Dempsey, J. C. Vaughan, K. H. Chen, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods, vol.8, pp.1027-1036, 2011.

A. Peaucelle, Curr. Biol, vol.21, pp.1720-1726, 2011.

Y. Rui, Plant Physiol, vol.180, pp.66-77, 2019.

N. Kim, Introduction to Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis, 2015.

E. K. Rodriguez, A. Hoger, and A. D. Mcculloch, J. Biomech, vol.27, pp.455-467, 1994.

A. Sampathkumar, , vol.3, p.1967, 2014.

P. Sotiriou, E. Giannoutsou, E. Panteris, B. Galatis, and P. Apostolakos, Plant Biol, vol.20, pp.223-237, 2018.

Z. A. Popper, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol, vol.62, pp.567-590, 2011.

E. Ficko-blean, C. Hervé, and G. Michel, Perspect. Phycol, vol.2, pp.51-64, 2015.

M. Terauchi, C. Nagasato, A. Inoue, T. Ito, and T. Motomura, Planta, vol.244, pp.361-377, 2016.

K. T. Haas and A. Peaucelle, Pectin homogalacturonan nanofilament expansion drives morphogenesis in plant epidermal cells, 2020.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02936700


K. T. Haas and V. Grafeo, , 2020.


K. T. Haas, SEMfilaments V1, version V.1, Zenodo, 2019.


K. T. Haas and A. Peaucelle, Shape Spectra Analysis, version V1.1.0, Zenodo, 2020.


K. T. Haas, The expanding beam model V1.1.0, version V1.1.0, Zenodo, 2020.

, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The dSTORM was performed at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, and we thank N. Barry and J. Howe for their support. We thank A. Gurzadyan for the critical evaluation of our FEM model and H. Höfte for help with the fundraising and discussion of the results. Funding: A.P. has received support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) GoodVibration

, The Microscopy Facility at the Sainsbury Laboratory is supported by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation, and work at the Sainsbury Laboratory was supported by the Gatsby Charitable Foundation (through fellowship GAT3395/ DAA). The Meyerowitz Laboratory has support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This work has benefited from the support of IJPB's Plant Observatory technological platforms, COFUND People Program, through the award of an AgreenSkills+ fellowship, 201310.

K. T. and A. P. , investigation, methodology, and formal analysis

R. W. , carried out the cryo-SEM

A. P. , E. M. , K. T. , and R. W. , writing, original draft, and writing

A. P. , The authors declare no other competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data, codes, and materials used in this study are available. Please contact A.P. for the material request, with the help of other authors: conceptualization. Competing interests: E.M.M. is a member of the Management Board of the Sainsbury Laboratory at Cambridge University

, View/request a protocol for this paper from Bio-protocol

, , 2019.

. Haas, Science, vol.367, pp.1003-1007, 2020.

, This article cites 37 articles, 11 of which you can access for free