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Etude de l'effet à moyen et long terme des systèmes de culture sur la structure d'un sol limoneux-argileux du Nord du Bassin Parisien - Les enseignements de l'essai de longue durée d'Estrées-Mons (80)

Abstract : A field experiment was initiated in 1989 in northern France to evaluate the cumulative effects of cropping systems on the structure of thetilled layer of a loamy soil. Three cropping systems involving different crop rotations and cultivations (early or late sowing, early or late har-vesting) were compared. Soil structure was evaluated in the ploughed layer after each crop was sown, using a morphological analysis method.We determined the proportion of highly compacted zones, i.e. the zones with a massive structure and no visible macropores in the plou-ghed layer. These zones, called ∆zones, result from severe anthropogenic compaction. The creation of ∆zones depended largely on thesoil moisture at the time of field operations and the characteristics of the machinery used. Maximum compaction occurred mostly duringharvesting in wet conditions because of high axle loads. In contrast, little compaction was produced during seedbed preparation, wherelower axle loads and wide tyres were used. Consequently changes in soil structure depended to a large extent on the cropping system.However, the proportion of ∆areas was not stable, but fluctuated greatly from one year to the next. ∆zones could quickly disappear tur-ned into fine soil. We therefore detected no irreversible effects on the structure of the ploughed layer, even for the cropping system thatproduced the highest annual risk of soil compaction. The combined effects of tillage and climate led to fewer compacted zones in the sur-face layer. Because this layer was mixed with deeper layers during soil inversion at the next ploughing, this contributed to fewer ∆zonesin the whole layer. The loss of ∆zones over the whole cultivated layer could not be explained by this effect alone and the reduction in soilcompaction was probably also due to the combined effects of loosening by mouldboard ploughing and climatic and soil fauna activities inthe ploughed layer below the seedbed. A complementary experiment was used to study the effect of cropping system on subsoil compactionin 1998. The results showed a significant effect of cropping systems on the part of the profile located under the plough pan.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02946429
Contributor : Guy Richard <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, September 23, 2020 - 10:13:30 AM
Last modification on : Friday, June 18, 2021 - 3:44:44 AM

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Hubert Boizard, Guy Richard, Pauline Defossez, Jean Estrade, Jean Boiffin. Etude de l'effet à moyen et long terme des systèmes de culture sur la structure d'un sol limoneux-argileux du Nord du Bassin Parisien - Les enseignements de l'essai de longue durée d'Estrées-Mons (80). Etude et Gestion des Sols, Association Française pour l'Etude des Sols, 2004, Accepté. ⟨hal-02946429⟩

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