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Immunoglobulins as biomarkers for gastrointestinal nematodes resistance in small ruminants: A systematic review

Abstract : The rise of anthelmintic resistance worldwide has led to the development of alternative control strategies for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infections, which are one of the main constraints on the health of grazing small ruminants. Presently, breeding schemes rely mainly on fecal egg count (FEC) measurements on infected animals which are time-consuming and requires expertise in parasitology. identifying and understanding the role of immunoglobulins in the mechanisms of resistance could provide a more efficient and sustainable method of identifying nematode-resistant animals for selection. In this study we review the findings on immunoglobulin response to GIN in the literature published to date (june 2019) and discuss the potential to use immunoglobulins as biomarkers. The literature review revealed 41 studies which measured at least one immunoglobulin: 35 focused on lamb immune response (18 used non-naïve lambs) and 7 on yearlings. In this review we propose a conceptual model summarizing the role of immunoglobulins in resistance to Gin. We highlight the need for more carefully designed and documented studies to allow comparisons across different populations on the immunoglobulin response to Gin infection. Small ruminants are an important source of food and revenue 1,2. The world's sheep and goat populations have increased steadily over the past decades, especially in developing countries 2. One of the main constraints on small ruminant production is management of animal health. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites has the greatest impact upon animal health and productivity 3. The control of GIN in sheep and goats has been dependent on the use of anthelmintic treatment, however their extensive use has resulted in the anthelmintic resistance 4-6 which has been reported in multiple countries 7. In addition, there is a growing demand from consumers to produce chemical-free food and increasing concern about animal welfare 8. Therefore, two main axes of research have been identified to develop alternative control strategies for GIN management. The first option is the reduction of parasite burden on the pasture through grazing management. However, nematode-free pastures are not readily available under intensive grazing conditions. The second option to reduce GIN infections is the improvement of the host immune response through the genetic selection of lines or breeds of resistant animals, nutritional supplementation and/or vaccination. A number of studies have already identified sheep breeds, such as the Florida Native 9,10 , Santa Ines 11,12 , Texel 13,14 , St. Croix 9,15,16 and Red Massai sheep 17 that are resistant to various GIN species. There are also reports on differences between breeds in resistance to GIN infection in goats 18-20. Moreover, variation among individuals within the same breed in response to GIN infection has been observed in sheep 21 and goats 22,23 , which could be used to breed resistant lines for several breeds. These variations were often applied to breed diverse lines in experimental studies for the identification of mechanisms or genetic regions for GIN resistance. Several studies have indicated that genetic resistance to GIN is associated with a protective immune response which is mediated, at least partly, by the humoral response 24. Understanding the differences in the humoral response between resistant and susceptible breeds, lines or individuals could help to design and implement
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 29, 2020 - 4:36:57 PM
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Hadeer Aboshady, Mickael Stear, Anna Johansson, Elisabeth Jonas, Jean-Christophe. Bambou. Immunoglobulins as biomarkers for gastrointestinal nematodes resistance in small ruminants: A systematic review. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2020, 10 (1), ⟨10.1038/s41598-020-64775-x⟩. ⟨hal-02952907⟩

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