. Aoac-international, Official Methods of Analysis, vol.17, 2002.

D. Bossen, D. Mertens, and M. R. Weisbjerg, Influence of fermentation methods on neutral detergent fiber degradation parameters, J. Dairy Sci, vol.91, pp.1464-1476, 2008.

L. Brassard, F. Chaucheyras-durand, B. Michalet-doreau, and C. Martin, Dose effect of live yeasts on rumen microbial communities and fermentations during butyric latent acidosis in sheep: new type of interaction, Anim. Sci, vol.82, pp.829-836, 2006.

M. Carro, P. Lebzien, and K. Rohr, Effects of yeast culture on rumen fermentation, digestibility and duodenal flow in dairy cows fed a silage based diet, Livest. Prod. Sci, vol.32, pp.219-229, 1992.

M. Carro, P. Lebzien, and K. Rohr, Influence of yeast culture on the in vitro fermentation (Rusitec) of diets containing variable portions of concentrates, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol, vol.37, pp.209-220, 1992.

F. Chaucheyras-durand, A. Ameilbonne, A. Bichat, P. Mosoni, F. Ossa et al., Live yeasts enhance fibre degradation in the cow rumen through an increase in plant substrate colonization by fibrolytic bacteria and fungi, J. Appl. Microbiol, vol.120, pp.560-570, 2016.

F. Chaucheyras-durand, N. Walker, and A. Bach, Effects of active dry yeasts on the rumen microbial ecosystem: past, present and future, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol, vol.145, pp.5-26, 2008.

W. K. Coblentz, M. S. Akins, J. S. Cavadini, and W. E. Jokela, Net effects of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritive value and digestibility of oat forages, J. Dairy Sci, vol.100, pp.1739-1750, 2017.

M. Doreau and J. Jouany, Effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture on nutrient digestion in lactating dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci, vol.81, pp.3214-3221, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02684042

F. Durand-chaucheyras, G. Fonty, G. Bertin, M. Th-eveniot, and P. Gouet, Fate of Levucell® SC I-1077 yeast additive during digestive transit in lambs, Reprod. Nutr. Dev, vol.38, pp.275-280, 1998.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00900206

M. M. Elghandour, J. C. Chagoy-an, A. Z. Salem, A. E. Kholif, J. S. Castañeda et al., Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at direct addition or pre-incubation on in vitro gas production kinetics and degradability of four fibrous feeds, Ital. J. Anim. Sci, vol.13, 2014.

U. Fda, Bacteriological analytical manual online, 2001.

H. Goering and P. Van-soest, Forage Fiber Analyses (Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures, and Some Applications) Agric. ARS-USDA, p.379, 1970.

M. B. Hall, Determination of starch, including maltooligosaccharides, in animal feeds: comparison of methods and a method recommended for AOAC collaborative study, J. AOAC Int, vol.92, pp.42-49, 2008.

L. Holden, Comparison of methods of in vitro dry matter digestibility for ten feeds, J. Dairy Sci, vol.82, pp.1791-1794, 1999.

R. E. Kass and A. E. Raftery, Bayes factors, J. Am. Stat. Assoc, vol.90, pp.773-795, 1995.

L. Kung, E. Kreck, R. Tung, A. Hession, A. Sheperd et al., Effects of a live yeast culture and enzymes on in vitro ruminal fermentation and milk production of dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci, vol.80, pp.2045-2051, 1997.

L. Penu, C. Fitzpatrick, L. Parker, and A. , The Influence of Incubation media on the Gas Production of in Vitro Rumen Fluid Cultures, 2012.

G. Marten and R. Barnes, Prediction of energy digestibility of forages with in vitro rumen fermentation and fungal enzymes systems, pp.61-71, 1980.

D. R. Mertens, Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: collaborative study, J. AOAC Int, vol.85, pp.1217-1240, 2002.

E. I. Mcdougall, Studies on ruminant saliva. 1. The composition and output of sheep's saliva, Biochem. J, vol.43, pp.99-109, 1948.

C. Newbold, F. Mcintosh, and R. Wallace, Changes in the microbial population of a rumen-simulating fermenter in response to yeast culture. Can, J. Anim. Sci, vol.78, pp.241-244, 1998.

J. Nocek, W. Kautz, J. Leedle, and J. Allman, Ruminal supplementation of direct-fed microbials on diurnal pH variation and in situ digestion in dairy cattle, J. Dairy Sci, vol.85, pp.429-433, 2002.

M. O'connor, S. Martin, and G. Hill, Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism Fermentation1, Prof. Anim. Sci, vol.18, pp.358-362, 2002.

F. Opsi, R. Fortina, S. Tassone, R. Bodas, and S. Opez, Effects of inactivated and live cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on in vitro ruminal fermentation of diets with different forage: concentrate ratio, J. Agric. Sci, vol.15, pp.271-283, 2012.

A. K. Patra, The use of live yeast products as microbial feed additives in ruminant nutrition, Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv, vol.7, pp.366-375, 2012.

A. Russouw, Heliyon, vol.6, p.5028, 2020.

M. Raeth-knight, J. Linn, and H. Jung, Effect of direct-fed microbials on performance, diet digestibility, and rumen characteristics of Holstein dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci, vol.90, pp.1802-1809, 2007.

E. Raffrenato and M. E. Van-amburgh, Technical note: improved methodology for analyses of acid detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin, J. Dairy Sci, vol.94, pp.3613-3617, 2011.

E. Raffrenato, C. F. Nicholson, and M. E. Van-amburgh, Development of a mathematical model to predict sizes and rates of digestion of a fast and slow degrading pool and the indigestible NDF fraction, J. Dairy Sci, vol.102, pp.351-364, 2019.

L. M. Rode, Maintaining a healthy Rumen-An overview, Adv. Dairy Technol, vol.12, pp.101-108, 2000.

G. Schwarz, Estimating the dimension of a model, Ann. Stat, vol.6, pp.461-464, 1978.

B. J. Shriver, W. H. Hoover, J. P. Sargent, R. J. Crawford, and W. V. Thayne, Fermentation of a high concentrate diet as affected by ruminal pH and digesta flow, J. Dairy Sci, vol.69, pp.413-419, 1986.

R. Siegfried, H. Ruckemann, and G. Stumpf, Method for the determination of organicacids in silage by high-performance liquid-chromatography, Landwirtsch. Forsch, vol.37, pp.298-304, 1984.

M. Thrune, A. Bach, M. Ruiz-moreno, M. Stern, and J. Linn, Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal pH and microbial fermentation in dairy cows: yeast supplementation on rumen fermentation, Livest. Sci, vol.124, pp.261-265, 2009.

J. M. Tilley and R. A. Terry, A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops, Grass Forage Sci, vol.18, pp.104-111, 1963.

P. J. Van-soest, Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 1994.

Z. Wang, Z. He, K. A. Beauchemin, S. Tang, C. Zhou et al., Evaluation of different yeast species for improving In vitro fermentation of cereal straws, Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci, vol.29, pp.230-240, 2016.