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Chitotetraose activates the fungal-dependent endosymbiotic signaling pathway in actinorhizal plant species

Abstract : Mutualistic plant-microbe associations are widespread in natural ecosystems and have made major contributions throughout the evolutionary history of terrestrial plants. Amongst the most remarkable of these are the so-called root endosymbioses, resulting from the intra-cellular colonization of host tissues by either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi or nitrogen-fixing bacteria that both provide key nutrients to the host in exchange for energy-rich photo-synthates. Actinorhizal host plants, members of the Eurosid 1 clade, are able to associate with both AM fungi and nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes known as Frankia. Currently, little is known about the molecular signaling that allows these plants to recognize their fungal and bacterial partners. In this article, we describe the use of an in vivo Ca 2+ reporter to identify symbiotic signaling responses to AM fungi in roots of both Casuarina glauca and Discaria tri-nervis, actinorhizal species with contrasting modes of Frankia colonization. This approach has revealed that, for both actinorhizal hosts, the short-chain chitin oligomer chitotetraose is able to mimic AM fungal exudates in activating the conserved symbiosis signaling pathway (CSSP) in epidermal root cells targeted by AM fungi. These results mirror findings in other AM host plants including legumes and the monocot rice. In addition, we show that chitote-traose is a more efficient elicitor of CSSP activation compared to AM fungal lipo-chitooligo-saccharides. These findings reinforce the likely role of short-chain chitin oligomers during the initial stages of the AM association, and are discussed in relation to both our current knowledge about molecular signaling during Frankia recognition as well as the different microsymbiont root colonization mechanisms employed by actinorhizal hosts. PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.
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Mireille Chabaud, Joëlle Fournier, Lukas Brichet, Iltaf Abdou-Pavy, Leandro Imanishi, et al.. Chitotetraose activates the fungal-dependent endosymbiotic signaling pathway in actinorhizal plant species. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2019, 14 (10), pp.e0223149. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0223149⟩. ⟨hal-02961598⟩

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