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Mens sana in corpore sano: Does the Glycemic Index Have a Role to Play?

Résumé : Although diet interventions are mostly related to metabolic disorders, nowadays they are used in wide variety of pathologies. From diabetes and obesity to cardiovascular diseases, through cancer or neurological disorders and stroke, nutritional recommendations applied to almost all diseases. Among those disorders, metabolic disturbances and brain function and/or diseases have recently been shown to be linked. Indeed, numerous neurological functions are often associated with perturbations of whole-body energy homeostasis. In this regard, specific diets are used in various neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, or seizure recovery. In addition, Alzheimer’s disease or Autism Spectrum Disorders are also considered as putatively improved by diet intervention. Glycemic index diets are a novel developed indicator expected to anticipate the changes in blood glucose induced by specific foods, and how they can affect various physiological function. Several results provide indications of efficiency of low glycemic index diets in weight management, insulin sensitivity, but also cognitive function, epilepsy treatment, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, studies involving glycemic index could provide new insight in the relationship between energy homeostasis regulation and brain function or related disorders. Therefore, in this review we will summarize main evidences on glycemic index involvement in brain mechanisms of energy homeostasis regulation.
Abstract : Although diet interventions are mostly related to metabolic disorders, nowadays they are used in wide variety of pathologies. From diabetes and obesity to cardiovascular diseases, through cancer or neurological disorders and stroke, nutritional recommendations applied to almost all diseases. Among those disorders, metabolic disturbances and brain function and/or diseases have recently been shown to be linked. Indeed, numerous neurological functions are often associated with perturbations of whole-body energy homeostasis. In this regard, specific diets are used in various neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, or seizure recovery. In addition, Alzheimer's disease or Autism Spectrum Disorders are also considered as putatively improved by diet intervention. Glycemic index diets are a novel developed indicator expected to anticipate the changes in blood glucose induced by specific foods, and how they can affect various physiological function. Several results provide indications of efficiency of low glycemic index diets in weight management, insulin sensitivity, but also cognitive function, epilepsy treatment, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, studies involving glycemic index could provide new insight in the relationship between energy homeostasis regulation and brain function or related disorders. Therefore, in this review we will summarize main evidences on glycemic index involvement in brain mechanisms of energy homeostasis regulation.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 27, 2020 - 9:44:30 AM
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Lionel Carneiro, Corinne Leloup. Mens sana in corpore sano: Does the Glycemic Index Have a Role to Play?. 2020. ⟨hal-02979216⟩

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