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Important determinants to take into account to optimize protein nutrition in the elderly: solutions to a complex equation

Abstract : During ageing, skeletal muscle develops anabolic resistance towards the stimulation of protein synthesis induced by dietary amino acids. The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis after food intake remains insufficient, even with a protein intake recommended for healthy adults. This alteration is one of the mechanisms known to be responsible for the decrease of muscle mass and function during ageing, namely sarcopenia. Increasing dietary protein intake above the current RDA (0.83 g/kg/d) has been strongly suggested to overcome the anabolic resistance observed. It is also specified that the dietary protein ingested should be of good quality. A protein of good quality is a protein whose amino acid (AA) composition covers the requirement of each AA when ingested at the RDA. However, the biological value of proteins may vary among dietary sources in which AA composition could be unbalanced. In the present review, we suggest that the quality of a dietary protein is also related to several other determinants. These determinants include the speed of digestion of dietary proteins, the presence of specific AA, the food matrix in which the dietary proteins are included, the processes involved in the production of food products (milk gelation and cooking temperature), the energy supply and its nature, and the interaction between nutrients before ingestion. Particular attention is given to plant proteins for nutrition of the elderly. Finally, the timing of protein intake and its association with the desynchronized intake of energetic nutrients are discussed.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 25, 2021 - 4:11:10 PM
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Dominique Dardevet, Laurent Mosoni, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Marie-Agnès Peyron, Sergio Polakof, et al.. Important determinants to take into account to optimize protein nutrition in the elderly: solutions to a complex equation. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020, 80 (2), pp.207-220. ⟨10.1017/S0029665120007934⟩. ⟨hal-03032902⟩



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