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Risk factors for the carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius isolated from African fermented dairy products

Abstract : Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) has been identified as predominant lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented dairy products (FDPs) in sub-Saharan Africa including Co<^> te d'Ivoire. However, Sii belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC). Most SBSEC members are assumed to be involved as opportunistic pathogens in serious diseases in both humans and animals. A population-based cross-sectional survey, including 385 participants was conducted in Korhogo, northern Co<^> te d'Ivoire, to identify risk factors for Sii fecal carriage, including consumption of local FDPs. A structured questionnaire was used to gather participant's socio-demographic and economic characteristics, their relation to livestock and dietary habits. In addition, fresh stool and milk samples were collected. The identification of Sii was done using a SBSEC-specific PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA and groEL genes. The overall prevalence of SBSEC and Sii carriage was 23.2% (confidence interval CI 95% = 18.9-27.5) and 12.0% (CI 95% = 8.4-15.5) for stool, respectively. Prevalence of Sii was significantly higher in consumers of artisanal butter compared with non-consumers (57.1% vs 10.1%, odds ratio OR: 11.9, 95% CI: 3.936.6), as well as in persons handling livestock (OR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.6-9.3) and livestock primary products (OR = 5.7; 95% CI = 2.3-14.3). The closer contact with livestock was a risk factor for Sii fecal carriage. Sii strains were isolated from fresh and fermented milk products with a prevalence of 30.4% and 45.4%, respectively. Analysis of Sii population structure through the SBSEC multi locus sequence typing assay revealed a close relationship across human and dairy isolates, possibly linked to a Kenyan human isolate. All these outcomes underline the interest of in-depth investigations on the ecology, potential reservoirs and pathways of contamination by Sii at the human-animal- environment interface in comparison to yet to be collected data from Europe, Asia and the Americas to further elucidate the various roles of Sii.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 3, 2020 - 4:17:07 PM
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Kossia D. T. Gboko, Sylvain G. Traoré, Aimé R. Sanhoun, Jérôme Kirioua, Nize Otaru, et al.. Risk factors for the carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius isolated from African fermented dairy products. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2019, 14 (11), ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0225452⟩. ⟨hal-03038797⟩



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