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Molecular tools for adapting viticulture to climate change

Abstract : Adaptation of viticulture to climate change includes exploration of new geographical areas, new training systems, new management practices, or new varieties, both for rootstocks and scions. Molecular tools can be defined as molecular approaches used to study DNAs, RNAs, and proteins in all living organisms. We present here the current knowledge about molecular tools and their potential usefulness in three aspects of grapevine adaptation to the ongoing climate change. (i) Molecular tools for understanding grapevine response to environmental stresses. A fine description of the regulation of gene expression is a powerful tool to understand the physiological mechanisms set up by the grapevine to respond to abiotic stress such as high temperatures or drought. The current knowledge on gene expression is continuously evolving with increasing evidence of the role of alternative splicing, small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation, or chromatin activity. (ii) Genetics and genomics of grapevine stress tolerance. The description of the grapevine genome is more and more precise. The genetic variations among genotypes are now revealed with new technologies with the sequencing of very long DNA molecules. High throughput technologies for DNA sequencing also allow now the genetic characterization at the same time of hundreds of genotypes for thousands of points in the genome, which provides unprecedented datasets for genotype-phenotype associations studies. We review the current knowledge on the genetic determinism of traits for the adaptation to climate change. We focus on quantitative trait loci and molecular markers available for developmental stages, tolerance to water stress/water use efficiency, sugar content, acidity, and secondary metabolism of the berries. (iii) Controlling the genome and its expression to allow breeding of better-adapted genotypes. High-density DNA genotyping can be used to select genotypes with specific interesting alleles but genomic selection is also a powerful method able to take into account the genetic information along the whole genome to predict a phenotype. Modern technologies are also able to generate mutations that are possibly interesting for generating new phenotypes but the most promising one is the direct editing of the genome at a precise location.
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03139829
Contributor : Éric Duchêne <>
Submitted on : Friday, February 12, 2021 - 12:32:54 PM
Last modification on : Friday, March 12, 2021 - 11:38:54 AM

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Éric Gomès, Pascale Maillot, Eric Duchene. Molecular tools for adapting viticulture to climate change. Frontiers in Plant Science, Frontiers, 2021, 12, pp.1-20. ⟨10.3389/fpls.2021.633846⟩. ⟨hal-03139829⟩

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