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ABSCISIC ACID-DEFICIENT4 Has an Essential Function in Both cis-Violaxanthin and cis-Neoxanthin Synthesis

Abstract : Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone synthesized from carotenoids, functions in seed germination and abiotic stress responses. ABA is derived from the cleavage of 9-cis-isomers of violaxanthin and neoxanthin, which are oxygenated carotenoids, also called xanthophylls. Although genes encoding enzymes responsible for most steps of the ABA biosynthesis pathway have been identified, enzymatic reactions leading to the production of these cis-isomers from trans-violaxanthin remain poorly understood. Two mutants that lack trans- and cis-neoxanthin, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) neoxanthin-deficient1 (nxd1) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ABA-deficient4 (aba4), were identified previously, but only aba4 exhibited ABA-deficient phenotypes. No enzymatic activity was detected for ABA4 and NXD1 proteins, and their exact function remained unknown. To further investigate ABA4 and NXD1 function in Arabidopsis, we compared phenotypes of single and double mutants, and analyzed the effect of ABA4 overexpression on ABA and carotenoid accumulation in wild-type and mutant backgrounds. We provide convergent evidence that ABA4 is not only required for the formation of trans- and 9 '-cis-neoxanthin from trans-violaxanthin, but also controls 9-cis-violaxanthin accumulation. While nxd1 produces high amounts of 9-cis-violaxanthin and ABA, aba4 nxd1 exhibits reduced levels in both leaves and seeds. Furthermore, ABA4 constitutive expression in nxd1 increases both 9-cis-violaxanthin and ABA accumulation. Subcellular localization of NXD1 protein in transient expression assays suggests that production of the NXD1-derived factor required for neoxanthin synthesis takes place in the cytosol. Finally, we postulate that ABA4, with additional unknown cofactor(s), is required for, or contributes to, trans-to-cis violaxanthin isomerase activity, producing both cis-xanthophyll precursors of ABA.
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Contributor : Christopher Lallemant <>
Submitted on : Monday, March 8, 2021 - 9:55:00 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 15, 2021 - 2:57:32 PM

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François Perreau, Anne Frey, Delphine Effroy-Cuzzi, Parisa Savane, Adeline Berger, et al.. ABSCISIC ACID-DEFICIENT4 Has an Essential Function in Both cis-Violaxanthin and cis-Neoxanthin Synthesis. Plant Physiology, American Society of Plant Biologists, 2020, 184 (3), pp.1303-1316. ⟨10.1104/pp.20.00947⟩. ⟨hal-03161816⟩



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