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Effect of nutritional status on nutrient and gas utilization by the mammary gland of lactating sows

Abstract : Milk synthesis being a continuous process in lactating sows, the mammary gland has to adapt its metabolism in response to extreme short-term changes in nutrient availability in the arterial bloodstream, due to the feeding pattern. The objective of the present study was to better quantify and understand these adaptations. The effect of morning refeeding after an overnight 16-h feed withdrawal was measured on the uptake of energysupplying nutrients, amino acids (AA), and some vitamins and minerals. After farrowing, catheters were fitted in the right anterior mammary vein and in the carotid artery of six sows. Blood samples were drawn on days 7, 14, and 21 of lactation, every 30 from 60 min before the morning meal to 300 min after the morning meal. Plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, α-amino nitrogen (N), vitamins B 12 , and folates were determined on all samples. Riboflavin and AA concentrations were only measured 30 min before the meal and 120 min after the meal. Arterial and venous plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and α-amino N increased after the meal (P < 0.01), and concentrations of NEFA, glycerol, and TG decreased (P < 0.01). Mammary arteriovenous concentration difference increased after the meal for glucose, lactate, and α-amino N (P < 0.01), remained constant for TG, and decreased for NEFA (P < 0.01) and glycerol (P < 0.05). Arterial concentrations of all AA increased after the meal, but changes of arteriovenous difference with the meal differed among AA. Arteriovenous difference of energy (7.6 kJ/l plasma) concentration was similar in feed-deprived and fed sows, but the contribution of the various nutrients differed, and the respiratory quotient was lower (P < 0.01) before the meal (0.95) than after the meal (1.54). The relative contributions of glucose, lactate, TG, NEFA, and AA to arteriovenous difference in energy concentration were 50.2, 3.8, 25.1, 0, and 20.8% in fed and 24.6, 2.2, 24.9, 32.9, and 15.0% in feed-deprived sows, respectively. The daily mammary extraction of vitamin B 12 , estimated from arteriovenous differences was higher than the amount of this vitamin bioavailable from the diet, probably contributing to the 50% decrease in plasma concentration between day 7 and day 21 of lactation. For both riboflavin and folates, arteriovenous differences in plasma concentrations were small or not different from zero. These results indicate that the mammary gland has a great capacity to adapt nutrient uptake very rapidly and modify its metabolism according to the nutrients available in the bloodstream.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 15, 2021 - 4:04:19 PM
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Jean-Yves Dourmad, J.J. J Matte. Effect of nutritional status on nutrient and gas utilization by the mammary gland of lactating sows. Animal, Published by Elsevier (since 2021) / Cambridge University Press (until 2020), 2021, 15 (2), pp.100116. ⟨10.1016/j.animal.2020.100116⟩. ⟨hal-03169748⟩



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