Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

The PROFOUND Database for evaluating vegetation models and simulating climate impacts on European forests

Christopher P.O. Reyer 1 Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez 1 Klara Dolos 2 Florian Hartig 3 Ylva Hauf 1 Matthias Noack 4 Petra Lasch-Born 1 Thomas Rötzer 5 Hans Pretzsch 5 Henning Meesenburg 6 Stefan Fleck 6 Markus Wagner 6 Andreas Bolte 7 Tanja G. M. Sanders 7 Pasi Kolari 8 Annikki Mäkelä 8 Timo Vesala 8 Ivan Mammarella 8 Jukka Pumpanen 9 Alessio Collalti 10 Carlo Trotta 11 Giorgio Matteucci 12 Ettore d'Andrea 12 Lenka Foltýnová 13 Jan Krejza 13 Andreas Ibrom 14 Kim Pilegaard 14 Denis Loustau 15 Jean-Marc Bonnefond 15 Paul Berbigier 15 Delphine Deshors-Picart 15 S. Lafont 15 Michael Dietze 16 David Cameron 17 Massimo Vieno 18 Hanqing Tian 19 Alicia Palacios-Orueta 20 Victor Cicuendez 20 Laura Recuero 20 Klaus Wiese 20 Matthias Büchner 1 Stefan Langer 1 Jan Volkholz 1 Hyungjun Kim 21 Joanna A. Horemans 22 Friedrich Bohn 23 Jörg Steinkamp 24 Alexander Chikalanov 25 Graham P. Weedon 26 Justin Sheffield 27 Flurin Babst 28 Iliusi Vega del Valle 1 Felicitas Suckow 1 Simon Martel 15 Mats Mahnken 1 Martin Gutsch 1 Katja Frieler 1
Abstract : Process-based vegetation models are widely used to predict local and global ecosystem dynamics and climate change impacts. Due to their complexity, they require careful parameterization and evaluation to ensure that projections are accurate and reliable. The PROFOUND Database (PROFOUND DB) provides a wide range of empirical data on European forests to calibrate and evaluate vegetation models that simulate climate impacts at the forest stand scale. A particular advantage of this database is its wide coverage of multiple data sources at different hierarchical and temporal scales, together with environmental driving data as well as the latest climate scenarios. Specifically, the PROFOUND DB provides general site descriptions, soil, climate, CO 2 , nitrogen deposition, tree and forest stand level, and remote sensing data for nine contrasting forest stands distributed across Europe. Moreover, for a subset of five sites, time series of carbon fluxes, atmospheric heat conduction and soil water are also available. The climate and nitrogen deposition data contain several datasets for the historic period and a wide range of future climate change scenarios following the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5). We also provide pre-industrial climate simulations that allow for model runs aimed at disentangling the contribution of climate change to observed forest productivity changes. The PROFOUND DB is available freely as a "SQLite" relational database or "ASCII" flat file version (at; Reyer et al., 2020). The data policies of the individual contributing datasets are provided in the metadata of each data file. The PROFOUND DB can also be accessed via the ProfoundData R package (; Silveyra Gonzalez et al., 2020), which provides basic functions to explore, plot and extract the data for model setup , calibration and evaluation.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata
Contributor : Marion Desailly Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Thursday, March 25, 2021 - 10:51:58 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 3, 2022 - 6:26:04 PM


Publisher files allowed on an open archive


Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License




Christopher P.O. Reyer, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Klara Dolos, Florian Hartig, Ylva Hauf, et al.. The PROFOUND Database for evaluating vegetation models and simulating climate impacts on European forests. Earth System Science Data, Copernicus Publications, 2020, 12 (2), pp.1295 - 1320. ⟨10.5194/essd-12-1295-2020⟩. ⟨hal-03180605⟩



Record views


Files downloads