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Genetic diversity of maize landraces from the South-West of France

Abstract : From the 17th century until the arrival of hybrids in 1960s, maize landraces were cultivated in the South-West of France (SWF), a traditional region for maize cultivation. A set of landraces were collected in this area between the 1950s and 1980s and were then conserved ex situ in a germplam collection. Previous studies using molecular markers on approx. twenty landraces from this region suggested that they belonged to a Pyrenees-Galicia Flint genetic group and originated from hybridizations between Caribbean and Northern Flint germplasms introduced to Europe. In this study, we assessed the structure and genetic diversity of 194 SWF maize landraces to better elucidate their origin, using a 50K SNP array and a bulk DNA approach. We identified two weakly differentiated genetic groups, one in the Western part and the other in the Eastern part of the studied region. We highlighted the existence of a longitudinal gradient along the SWF area that was probably maintained through the interplay between genetic drifts and restricted gene flows. The contact zone between the two groups observed near the Garonne valley may be the result of these evolutionnary forces. We found in landraces from the East part of the region significant cases of admixture between landraces from the Northern Flint group and landraces from either the Caribbean, Andean or Italian groups. We then assumed that SWF landraces had a multiple origin with a predonderance of Northern Flint germplasm for the two SWF groups, notably for the East part.
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Contributor : Brigitte Gouesnard <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, April 27, 2021 - 4:16:20 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 15, 2021 - 2:57:34 PM


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Stéphane Nicolas, Yacine Diaw, Christine Tollon-Cordet, Alain Charcosset, D Nicolas, et al.. Genetic diversity of maize landraces from the South-West of France. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2021, 16 (2), pp.e0238334. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0238334⟩. ⟨hal-03210018⟩



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