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An Iterative-Mode Scan Design of Terrestrial Laser Scanning in Forests for Minimizing Occlusion Effects

Abstract : Occlusion effect, an inherent problem of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements, limits the potential of TLS data in tree attribute estimation. Multiple scans seek to mitigate this effect to provide enhanced scan completeness. However, the numbers and locations of the scans (i.e., the scan design) are usually determined via a subjective assessment of the tree density, spatial patterns of trees, and attributes to be derived. These could cause suboptimal scan completeness and limit tree attribute estimation. This study proposed an iterative-mode scan design to minimize the occlusion effect. First, we introduced a PoTo index based on visibility analysis to evaluate how many trees can be scanned from a location and to select effective candidates for the optimal TLS location. Second, we introduced a cumulative degree of ring closure (CDRC) to quantify the scan completeness for each candidate and determine the optimal TLS location. The TLS data sets of virtual forests with field-measured and synthetic plot parameter settings were simulated according to iterative- and regular-mode designs by using a Heidelberg light detection and ranging (LiDAR) Operations Simulator (HELIOS). The results demonstrated that an iterative-mode design can improve the scan completeness of trees compared to the regular-mode design. The tree attribute (diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, stem curve, and crown volume) estimates of the iterative-mode design were less erroneous than those of the regular-mode design (e.g., the root-mean-square error (RMSE) could decrease the stem curve estimation by 38 and the crown volume estimation by 15). This study suggests that the iterative-mode design can obtain an improved quality of the TLS data, especially for dense stands.
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Contributor : Nelly Lucas <>
Submitted on : Monday, May 31, 2021 - 4:41:43 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 1, 2021 - 3:33:22 AM




Linyuan Li, Xihan Mu, Maxime Soma, Peng Wan, Jianbo Qi, et al.. An Iterative-Mode Scan Design of Terrestrial Laser Scanning in Forests for Minimizing Occlusion Effects. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021, 59 (4), pp.3547-3566. ⟨10.1109/TGRS.2020.3018643⟩. ⟨hal-03243568⟩



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