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Seasonal and long-term consequences of esca grapevine disease on stem xylem integrity

Abstract : Hydraulic failure has been extensively studied during drought-induced plant dieback, but its role in plant-pathogen interactions is under debate. During esca, a grapevine (Vitis vinifera) disease, symptomatic leaves are prone to irreversible hydraulic dysfunctions but little is known about the hydraulic integrity of perennial organs over the short- and long-term. We investigated the effects of esca on stem hydraulic integrity in naturally infected plants within a single season and across season(s). We coupled direct (ks) and indirect (kth) hydraulic conductivity measurements, and tylose and vascular pathogen detection with in vivo X-ray microtomography visualizations. Xylem occlusions (tyloses) and subsequent loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (ks) occurred in all shoots with severe symptoms (apoplexy) and in more than 60% of shoots with moderate symptoms (tiger-stripe), with no tyloses in asymptomatic shoots. In vivo stem observations demonstrated that tyloses occurred only when leaf symptoms appeared, and resulted in more than 50% loss of hydraulic conductance in 40% of symptomatic stems, unrelated to symptom age. The impact of esca on xylem integrity was only seasonal, with no long-term impact of disease history. Our study demonstrated how and to what extent a vascular disease such as esca, affecting xylem integrity, could amplify plant mortality through hydraulic failure.
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Submitted on : Friday, July 2, 2021 - 9:19:52 AM
Last modification on : Monday, May 30, 2022 - 4:52:03 PM

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Giovanni Bortolami, Elena Farolfi, Eric Badel, Regis Burlett, Herve Cochard, et al.. Seasonal and long-term consequences of esca grapevine disease on stem xylem integrity. Journal of Experimental Botany, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021, 72 (10), pp.3914-3928. ⟨10.1093/jxb/erab117⟩. ⟨hal-03276371⟩



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